Friday 19 April 2024

ANZAC Day Remembrance 25 Apr 2024 - The Winton and District War Memorial Gates

The Winton & District War Memorial Gate
Taken Apr 2024
[From my own collection]

The 25th of April 2024, known as ANZAC Day, will again mark that rare day each year when the two sovereign nations of Australia and New Zealand both commemorate those servicemen and servicewomen who have; 

"served and died in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations and the contribution and suffering of all those who have served."

Having been brought up in the rural district of Heddon Bush in Central Southland, being located at the southern end of New Zealand's South Island, I always found it curious that unlike many other country districts, even neighbouring Drummond, there was no "brick and mortar" War Memorial. The only reference to those who served in World Wars One and Two is a wooden "Roll of Honour" board installed in the local hall, but this only commemorates former pupils of the school so the names of many local servicemen were omitted. 

For many years I had felt that perhaps, after the misery and heartbreak of the First World War years, an absolutely crippling slump in post World War One farm returns, and also constant and prodigious wartime fundraising, that there had simply been a desire to "move on" and that the will to raise further funds had simply run out of steam. There had also been very generous monetary and personal gifts to the district's Returned Servicemen who had definitely not been forgotten. But then I became aware of the fact that the Winton War Memorial Gates in Central Southland represent not just Winton but also "District[s]".  

A Pillar of the Winton
War Memorial Gate
[Source NZ History]

A plaque on one pillar of the memorial gate does in fact read; "Erected to the Memory of Those of Winton and District" while a plaque on the other pillar reads; "Who Suffered and Died in the Great War". But which districts the Memorial Gates represent is lacking and i'm sure that if asked, most people who pass here now would have no idea that the memorial related to anywhere else other than Winton. At least I now know that those Servicemen from not only Winton but also a number of districts in the area, and who gave their lives for King and Country, were in fact not forgotten. Perhaps it was felt that with a wider geographical area a broad commemoration without names would not only be more cost effective but also a tidier option with less chance of innacuracies or omissions. Had names been added there would unfortunately have been a great many and I daresay a much larger memorial would have been required.

A Pillar of the Winton
War Memorial Gate
[Source NZ History]

Winton and surrounding districts had in fact been actively commemorating ANZAC day in local Churches from the 25th April 1916. A movement to commemorate the landing of the ANZAC Forces at Gallipoli on the 25th April 1915 had started in Brisbane, Australia in early 1916, quickly spreading to New Zealand where the Premier was asked, and agreed, to declare a National half-holiday so that Memorial services could be held. 

Heddon Bush School children
commemorating ANZAC Day, April 1917
[Watson Family collection]

From the above photo we know that in April 1917 children at the rural Heddon Bush School commemorated ANZAC Day, being photographed with a large blackboard reading "Brave ANZACS's" with a New Zealand flag.  ANZAC Day would also commonly be commemorated annually at all Winton and district churches, district schools, at Moores Hall and / or the Army Drill Hall in Winton, and in various local country halls.  

On the 3rd February 1920 Winton unveiled Memorial Plaques at the Winton School, with wreaths being laid each year thereafter. But as with the Heddon Bush School Memorial board, this only commemorated Servicemen who had been former pupils of the School. The Winton Presbyterian Church also put up a "Roll of Honour" (and later also for World War Two) for all Church members who had served in the forces.

But from late 1920, and right througout the Dominion, the "War Memorial Movement" was "being taken up by the public with great enthusiasm". That today almost every township in New Zealand has a public war memorial indicates the success of the movement and the desire to honour not only the fallen but all who had served their King and country.

Various proposals for a Southland Memorial were informally put forward, with Mr Henry R. Wilson of neighbouring South Hillend (died 1972 aged 99 years) writing to "The Southland Times" in March 1920 with some radical but interesting thoughts and suggestions of which this is only an excerpt:

"At Thursday last’s meeting of the War Funds Association, eleven country districts being represented, little sympathy was shown to the idea of the proposed [Invercargill] memorial. Can townspeople wonder why ? The wishes or sympathy of rural residents was neither asked for nor considered. ... A tablet at school or athenaeum in a country centre is very well from the local point of view to keep in memory the brave fallen, but the frittering away of, in some cases, several hundred pounds, and enthusiasm in small inadequate effigies of troopers and small monuments, seen by but few, is injudicious and to be deplored. ... If country people are to subscribe they must see something tangible as the outcome. ... failing a general Southland monument, the bulk of the country people might erect one on Forest Hill,...which is Crown lands and easily seen from Riverton, Otautau, Nightcaps, Winton, Morton Mains and elsewhere.... "

It now transpires that the rural community of Heddon Bush had in fact initially desired a memorial of their own. But in early March 1921, and after having invited Mr Walker, the Mayor of Winton, to speak to the residents, there was a quite surprising development;

“…it was unanimously decided to fall in with the Winton scheme. Winton has decided to erect a clock tower, upon which will be inscribed the names of fallen heroes from the district. The proposed site is on the Railway reserve, which would be beautified and provide a suitable environment for the structure. The cost of the memorial (without the clock) would be about £1500.”   

Choosing to join with Winton was perhaps not surprising. Being only 21 kilometres from Heddon Bush, Winton had a suitable and very visible site readily available at no cost, was undoubtedly the primary commercial rural centre for most Heddon Bush residents, a proposed railway line from Winton to Heddon Bush had been fully surveyed as long ago as circa 1875 and was, even at this late date, still expected to be constructed, and more importantly, it meant being able to share the cost of a rather more substantial War Memorial with not only Winton but other rural districts which all made perfect sense. Likewise, neighbouring South Hillend only put up a World War One "Roll of Honour" board in their local school as late as June 1936 so appear to have quickly fallen in with the "Winton scheme" - hopefully with Mr Wilson's blessing! 

The Memorial Weeping Wych Elm tree in the
Winton Oval, planted to commemorate the
ANZAC Day Landings, circa 1915.
Taken Autumn, Apr 2024
[From my own collection] 

After the initial momentum, fund raising for the Winton War Memorial appears to have progressed rather slowly. The first published reference to active fundraising and plans for the Winton War Memoral is this report dated the 5th February 1924; 

"At a public meeting in Winton to discuss the form of Soldiers' Memorial to be erected, it was stated that nearly £200 was on hand for the purpose. It was unanimously decided to erect an arch-gateway, and plant memorial trees in the vicinity." 

But it appears that there was already a "memorial tree", a weeping wych elm, in the Railway Reserve, having been planted by Mr Robert Wilson, the Mayor of Winton from 1914 to 1915, to commemorate the ANZAC Day landings on the 25th April 1915. So the weeping elm (which is now a "listed" tree) can only have been planted in 1915 unless the term "Mayor" was used retrospectively, i.e., that he was Mayor at the time of the landings although this seems rather unlikely.  

As to why a "Clock Tower" did not eventuate is unknown and we now have an "arch-gateway". The local newspaper, "The Winton Record" would have kept residents well informed of developments and Winton Borough Council business but this valuable publication has not (yet) been digitized.

A report from the 20th March 1924 states that canvassing for donations had commenced and that; 

"a generous response has been forthcoming. It is more than likely that the memorial will take the form of an arch gateway leading to the railway reserve, which will be beautified by the Town Council".

Over a year later, we note that during a meeting of the Winton Borough Council in August 1925, Councillor Gullick; "brought up" the matter of the Soldiers' Memorial. It was then; "...left in the Mayor’s hands to arrange a meeting of the collectors in order that some finality be arrived at." So obviously, plans for the memorial had still only progressed slowly.  

The Winton Memorial Gates in their original
pre-2009 location fronting the Bowling Green.
[Source : NZ History]

By March 1927 a "Sub Committee" had been constituted under the auspices of the Winton Borough Council, then meeting to discuss amended plans by Invercargill Architect Mr Edmund R.F. Wilson ;

"which provide for handsome memorial gates with two imposing stone pillars.... The gates are to be erected on the site at the stone steps leading to the railway reserve. " 

Exactly why an "arch-gateway" was no longer considered is unknown, perhaps just a modification suggested by the Architect in his "amended" plans, although the wrought iron gates when closed form an arch. The concrete pillars themselves would be substantial, each weighing between 6.5 to 7 tonnes. Interestingly, and I am sure by accident rather than by design, the chosen Architect, Mr Edmund R. Wilson, is in fact a brother of the afore-mentioned Mr Henry R. Wilson. 

The official unveiling and opening of the Memorial Gates on Great North Road, Winton, took place on ANZAC Day, being Thursday the 25th April 1929, with the ceremony being carried out by Chaplain Lieutenant-Colonel Dutton of Dunedin, a veteran of both the (2nd) Boer War and First World Wars. The Rev. Dutton had, in fact, a proud military heritage, being the son of a soldier and a Grandfather who fought at Waterloo. Dutton gave a long speech approriate to the occasion, only part of which includes these comments;     

"These tablets [of memory] will serve to tell future generations of the great sacrifices made by the young men of this generation. It has taken some years to complete the erection of the memorial at Winton and I am sure we are all very pleased that it has now been accomplished. The gates, walls and fences have been erected entirely by voluntary contributions and I wish to thank all those who have so liberally contributed to the fund....”

The Winton War Memorial Gates, taken looking west
and framing the Winton Water Tower, Oct 1958
[Photo credit : William Dykes] 

The Memorial Gate was erected with a decorative low concrete wall next to Great North Road, giving convenient access to the Winton Bowling Club grounds. Where the road curves round between the Memorial gate and the former Post Office was the 1902 Band Rotunda (in its original position beside the road before demolition in 1954 due to being a "traffic hazard"), being built to commemorate the 1899-1902 Boer War and the Coronation of King Edward VII. But in later years, with the gate being situated next to a now busy main road this proved inconvenient for ANZAC Day parades and gatherings and of course the band rotunda was long gone by then. Thus, as recorded by local Historian, the late Vince Boyle  ;

"The concrete 14 tonne twin pillars with an ornate iron gate were cut off at their bases and transported to Anzac Oval (80m south on Great North Road) and re-sited there on new foundations in time for Anzac Day 2009 at a cost of $35,928."

The Winton War Memorial pillars being moved,
January 2009
[Photo credit : Robyn Edie]

The new site further south on Great North Road is situated oblique to the road almost adjoining the former 1905 Winton Post Office building and with steps now leading down into the "ANZAC Oval". This is a small park with the centrepiece being not only the ornate Band Rotunda but also the afore-mentioned spreading Elm tree.  

And in fact, the historic old Winton Railway Station dating from 1871 (sadly demolished in 1983) had been situated at the north east corner of the park fronting a short access road, being an eastern extension of Brandon street which now leads to a soul-less car and truck park. Troops would be farewelled here prior to leaving for camp and military service overseas, many never to return. As, previously noted, which rural districts are represented by the Gates is not recorded but this was no doubt deliberately left open to include the area in general. Likewise, the amount raised by each district is not recorded and being a community effort, may never have been itemized in such a way. Comparing the photos from 1958 and today, I note that the dates "1914" and "1919" are no longer highlighted in a darker colour but otherwise the Memorial has been faithfully restored to how it was originally built. As to "1919", this was actually then considered the official end of the war as the Treaty of Versailles was only signed in June 1919. If you look closely at the wrought iron gateway (in the uppermost photo) when closed you will also notice that it also forms a Celtic style Cross.

The Heddon Bush School 
War Memorial Roll of Honour
[Photo credit : Vicki-Lynne Hubber]

And the "deficiency", if you would even call it that, of the Heddon Bush District not having their own War Memorial this was, as previously noted, partially rectified when a wooden Roll of Honour board was placed in the Heddon Bush School after World War Two but lists only those Heddon Bush School ex-pupils who had served and died in both World Wars. This board was paid for using the £39.8.0 profit from the 1949 Heddon Bush School 69th anniversary celebrations. Yes, an odd date for a celebration but as some first day pupils were still living the community wished to celebrate the occasion with them. The board would later be transferred from the school to the old Heddon Bush hall and is now in the new hall opened in 1964. I recall it hanging high up on the wall, where it still hangs to this day, but I personally never took much notice of it and I do not recall at any time that it was given any particular official ANZAC Day recognition. As to South Hillend, their school closed some years ago and they no longer have a local hall so am unsure of the location of their World War One & Two Rolls of Honour for former pupils. Unfortunately the Kia Mate Koa roll of Southland War Memorials and locations is no longer available online.

But I now know that the service and sacrifice of those from not just Winton, but also from surrounding Districts, are commemorated by the Winton & District Memorial Gates so these now hold a deeper meaning for me. Winton has, in fact, a number of war related Memorial Rolls of Honour and plaques, some being viewable in public areas. 

Last but not least, I must acknowledge the work of the late Ann Robbie (died Jan 2023) for documenting not only these but in fact all of Southland's War Memorials (around 420) as well as her work in restoring a number of memorial boards and rolls of honour. The late Iain Davidson (died Nov 2023), another Southlander, also deserves equal recognition for his work in researching and documenting the lives of a great many local servicemen as well as his invaluable and tenacious work in identifying servicemen in old photographs. I am aware that Andy Macdonald is now progressing Iain's work.    

Any further information is welcome and my email link appears in the right hand menu bar. As to which "Districts" the Winton War Memorial gates represent most likely includes the following (being districts in the immediate area who do not have their own district War Memorial) :

- Lochiel
- Oreti Plains
- Heddon Bush
- Dunearn
- South Hillend
- Kauana
- Otapiri
- Hokonui
- Springhills
- Tussock Creek

"They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old :
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun and in the morning
We will remember them."

From "For the Fallen" by Laurence Binyon (1914)

All Rights Reserved 

Sources & Acknowledgements:

- Papers Past, National Library of New Zealand  
- New Zealand History, NZ Ministry for Culture & Heritage 
- "Tales of the Turi 1984 - 1984", by M. Cairns & F.H. Plunkett
- The Cyclopedia of New Zealand [Otago & Southland Provincial Districts] (held by the writer)
- Invercargill Public Library Reference Library (and their very helpful Librarians).
- Watson Family History, 2022 (held by the writer)
- Watson Family photo collection (held by the writer)
- Dykes Family photo collection (held by the writer)
- Personal photo collection
- Vicki-Lynne Hubber

Sunday 14 April 2024

Royal Related Discoveries (Part Three) - An 1858 Royal Wedding Order of Service & A Connection to "Big Ben"


Order of Service used at the Marriage
of the Princess Royal and the
Crown Prince of Prussia, 1858
[From my own collection]  

Continuing my series of "Royal Discoveries" [click Here to read the First Instalment], this Blog relates to a small hard-covered booklet entitled "The Form of Solemnization of Matrimony" including a "VR" cypher, crown and date with border printed in gold leaf on the front cover. Found in 2001 in a bookshop in Dunedin, New Zealand, this has truly proved to be what would be termed a "sleeper", not being identified for what it was and priced accordingly at only NZD$15.00 [About UK£7.50].

The Princess Royal & the Crown Prince of Prussia
at the time of their Wedding, 1858
[From my own collection]

It is in fact a hard bound copy of the spoken words used during the marriage at The Chapel Royal, St James' Palace, London on the 25th January 1858, of The Princess Royal, Victoria Adelaide Mary Louise (Eldest Daughter of Queen Victoria) and HRH Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl (Crown Prince of Prussia and later Father of The Kaiser). The "VR" in gold is Queen Victoria's personal cypher along with the Crown. All attendees at the service would have had been given a copy of this booklet to allow them to follow the order of service, with those words spoken by the Royal couple also being highlighted in red.

The Wedding of the Princess Royal &
the Crown Prince of Prussia, 1858.
A watercolour by Efron S. Lundgren
[Source : Royal Collection Trust] 

The inside of the booklet included a hand written name in cursive script, reading "B Hall", also with the date of the wedding. With this information I wrote to the Royal Archives at Windsor Castle in 2005, receiving a most helpful reply from their Senior Archivist, Miss Pamela Clark. She wrote that, having checked the extant guest list;

"the only persons called Hall listed were Sir Benjamin Hall, Chief Commissioner of Works, and his wife, Augusta....." and that; ...presumably there were other people present as well as the guests, such as the clergy, choir and musicians, and I am afraid that we do not have their names."

She did in fact also direct me to The National Archives who held the records for the Lord Chamberlain's Office, being responsible for arranging Royal weddings. I did not however pursure this option as this would have incurred a charge. But, as detailed below, the association with the above-named Sir Benjamin Hall appears now to have been conclusively confirmed. 

How this booklet came to end up in New Zealand is rather interesting and also accounts for how it had slipped into obscurity. The "Newport Public Libraries" located within the County of Monmouthshire in Wales (United Kingdom) evidently disposed of a quantity of books from their storage stack, stamping them "Discarded from stock". This also accounts for a mark on the bottom left of the cover where a library number had been affixed. The discarded books, including the 1858 Order of Service, were then (from memory) purchased by a Welsh second hand book shop owner. Their entire stock was  subsequently sold to the owner of "Albatross Books", a second hand book dealer based in Dunedin, New Zealand. This large stock of books was then shipped half way around the world to be sold in their shop, an advertisement at the time alluding to the dealer having bought a stock lot of books from the UK. 

And it was in this bookshop, and while looking at these books, that I discovered "The Form of Solemnization of Matrimony" although even then I didn't appreciate its full historic significance. But i've always had a keen eye for interesting and unusual items.

Sir Benjamin Hall, 1st Baron Llanover
[Source Wikipedia]

But it is only now that I have made one further discovery relating to the booklet's provenance. Research confirms that the above-named Sir Benjamin Hall (1802 - 1867), and who attended the 1858 Royal wedding with his wife Augusta, was a Civil Engineer, the first Commissioner of [Public] Works serving from 1855 to 1858, elevated to the peerage as "Lord Llanover" in 1859, and then served as Lord Lieutenant of Monmouthshire from 1861 to 1867. Through his wife Augusta, a Welsh Heiress, he inherited the Llanover Estate in Monmouthshire which is just only under twenty miles from Newport being where the booklet ended up in their public library. The Hall's resided at Llanover Hall just east of Llanover and while this grand home was largely demolished in 1936, one range remains, now being known as "Llanover House" with the estate gardens regularly opening to the public. But the 1858 Order of Service will have, for some years, resided here at Llanover Hall in Lord Llanover's library. 

Llanover House, taken late 1800's
[Source : People's Collection, Wales]

One would also assume that other books from Hall's library (Lord Llanover died in 1867 and his wife Augusta in 1896) also ended up at an indeterminate date at the Newport Library. However, back in 2001 I was not, at the time, checking the stock lot of purchased books for any indication of a former provenance.

"The Great Bell", commonly known as "Big Ben"
after Sir Benjamin Hall, Commissioner of Works.
[Source : Public Domain]

Rather interestingly, Sir Benjamin Hall, and during his tenure as Commissioner of Public Works, also oversaw the later stages of the rebuilding of the British Houses of Parliament including the casting and installation of the 13.8-tonne hour bell, "Big Ben" (actually correctly termed "The Great Bell") in the clock tower, a name which is commonly attributed to him. An article in "The Times" newspaper of the 22nd October 1856 would appear to conclusively confirm this attribution; 

All bells, we believe, are christened before they begin to toll, and on this occasion, it is proposed to call our king of bells ‘Big Ben’ in honour of Sir Benjamin Hall, the president of the board of works, during whose tenure of office it was cast.” 

Reportedly being a rather tall gentleman probably also accounted for the title.

Sir Benjamin Hall, Lord Llanover
From an original pre 1867 photograph
[Source : People's Collection Wales]

Having formerly worked in an Archive, I know that provenance is very important and in this case I have managed to establish beyond any reasonable doubt not only the historical authenticity of the Order of Service, but also the original ownership of this item, and of its subsequent ownership history. From an initial inquiry to the Newport Central Library they had no knowledge of having taken over Hall's library. I think if this had been a significant bequest that they would be well aware of this fact and still have holdings from such a learned and accomplished gentleman's library. Mr Clauzon, their most helpful Reference Librarian was going to investigate further with a retired staff member but I have heard nothing more since then. Should any more information come to hand I will of course update this Blog.

While still not by any means a hugely valuable booklet it is however nice to own an item that had been used by a guest who attended the 1858 Royal wedding and to discover something of the rich and varied life of the original recipient. 

All Rights Reserved

Acknowledgements for Valued Assistance :

- Mr Lionel Clauzon, Reference Librarian, Newport Central Library, Wales (2024)

- Miss Pamela Clark, [former] Senior Archivist, Royal Archives, Windsor Castle, UK

Reference Sources :

- Personal collection

- Royal Archives, Windsor Castle, UK

- Royal Collection Trust

- Llyfrgell Ganolog Casnewydd / Newport Central Library, Wales

- Casgliad y Werin Cymru / People's Collection Wales

- Wikipedia

- Various Internet resources

Sunday 7 April 2024

Royal Related Discoveries (Part Two) - Queen Mary, Queen Victoria's Dinner, & Empress "Sisi"


H.R.H. Princess Victoria Mary of Tech, c.1896
[From my own collection]

HM Queen Mary

Continuing my series of "Royal Discoveries" [Click Here to read the first instalment], sometimes, being very knowledgeable on a subject and having a good photographic memory can be a distinct advantage. In 2006 and while wandering round a large antique shop on New Zealand's South Island, and which was literally groaning with a vast array of chinaware, glassware and other varied objects d'art, a small mounted photo in a cabinet, and being of an elegant woman, caught my eye. Set in a gold coloured metal mount and fixed onto a blue and embossed velvet backing, it included hand written notes where someone had tried to identify the lady as a possible family member.

The Original Cabinet Card
Portrait of Princess Mary of Teck,
later to become Queen Mary. 
[Source : Wikipedia]

But I knew instantly that it was an earlier photo of the late Queen Mary, wife of King George V. The photograph was in fact taken around 1893 at the time of her marriage and while still Her Serene Highness, Princess Victoria Mary, of Tech she would, after her marriage, be styled Her Royal Highness, the Duchess of York. Brought up in Darmstadt, Germany, Princess Mary (who was known by her family as "May") was the daughter of a German Nobleman, the Duke of Tech and his wife, Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, who was in fact a great grand daughter of King George III. Being perhaps rather wicked, it was only after paying for the item that I enlightened the Dealer as to the correct attribution whereupon he definitely looked decidedly downcast. Had he recognized this royal personage that would (and knowing the prices charged by this particular shop) at least have doubled the price. To be honest, I was surprised that such an established Dealer had not made the connection himself. Knowledge is everything so simply, "Caveat Venditor" - meaning "Let the Seller Beware"! 

As an aside, I have since noted an equivalent portrait of the Duke of York (late King George V) in exactly the same of style of gold mount but this example was then without the blue velour backing. So it was obvious that with a back support and also a small fitted rung (as mine does) they were both intended to be displayed as a pair, either propped up with their stands or hung on a wall. The photo of Queen Mary originally had a cover made from an early type of clear plastic, but as it had darkened with age I carefully removed it and while I still have it, replacing it might break it as it appears to be very brittle.

The printed menu for the dinner
given by Queen Victoria described
in this Blog, 15th May 1879
[From my own collection]

Her Majesty's Dinner

As to my second "Royal Discovery", prior to 2012 a New Zealand online auction item caught my attention, and I bid on what I knew was definitely an original six course menu card from a dinner given in May 1879 by Her Majesty Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle. Elaborately printed menu's were then the norm for large dinners and I actually thought nothing more of it. It was just a "nice to have" item with an undisputed Royal provenance.

Entry in Queen Victoria's Diary describing
the Dinner given for the German Empress,
at Windsor Castle on the 15th May 1879.
(as transcribed by Princess Beatrice)
[Source : Royal Archives]

Fortuitously, in 2012 Queen Victoria's Journals were digitized and placed online (initially for free) and I was quickly able to ascertain exactly who attended this dinner. It was in fact a grand dinner given by Queen Victoria in honour of the visit of  Augusta, Empress of Germany from 1871 to 1888 and Consort of the German Emperor William I. So this added rather more significance to my menu card. You can read my previous Blog about her visit HERE.

Empress Elizabeth "Sisi" of Austria,
the day of her Coronation as
Queen of Hungary, 1867
[Source : Wikipedia]

HM Empress Elizabeth ("Sisi") of Austria

As to my final discovery for this blog post, this was an interesting unidentified find in a large antique store on New Zealand's North Island. Just to be clear I did not wish to purchase this item but informed the owner of the shop of the correct attribution and how I knew this to be correct. He thanked me for this information and I imagine after confirming my attribution online he quickly upped the price.

The item was in fact a large framed portrait of Empress Elizabeth of Austria (1837-1898), now affectionally known as "Sisi". Having personally visited the Sisi Museum as part of a self-guided tour of the Imperial Apartments at the Hofburg, in Vienna, being the former Hapsburg Dynasty Royal Palace, and having bought a couple of colour portrait postcards of the late Empress, I had recognized her instantly. I do not recall if the above commonly used image was the exact one in question but it was definitely a monotone print.

Empress Elizabeth is in fact a fascinating woman and renowned for not just her famed beauty. Having been born into the Bavarian Royal family and while not of Austrian Hapsburg blood, she is in fact still greatly revered in Austria. Having married the Austrian Emperor and King of Hungary, Franz Josef I in 1854, Elizabeth never quite took to the restrictions of Royal court life imposed on her by the Viennese Court and increasingly embarked on travel as a means of escape, usually incognito to avoid any public attention. Her husband actually "indulged her wanderings", perhaps through fear of losing her altogether. While "emotionally distant" from her husband she bore him four children and while in later years they saw very little of each other, they corresponded frequently, "and their relationship became a warm friendship".   

A sensitive but highly intelligent and well-read woman of independent spirit, Elizabeth would be greatly mourned after her shocking muder at Geneva in 1898 at the hands of an anarchist. Her free-standing sarchophagus, along side that of her husband, may be visited, along with the sarchophagi of many other Austrian Royals, in the Imperial Crypt in the Capuchin Church in Vienna. Having also visited, I was horrified by the number of tourists taking flash photos and I felt no sense of serenity let alone peace and quiet. The "cult of Sisi", although now somewhat commercialized, ensures however that Elizabeth, a much loved Empress for 44 years and deeply mourned after her untimely death, will not be forgotten.  

How this Victorian era framed print of an Austrian Empress ended up in New Zealand might be a story in its own right but on my next visit to the antique store in question the framed print was nowhere to be seen. I hope it went to a good home.

All Rights Reserved

Sources :

- Personal collection

- Various Internet sources

- Wikipedia

Sunday 31 March 2024

The Absurdity of Such a Device - An Unofficial History of the "Pocket Telephone"

A Satirical Cartoon lampooning the
use of "Pocket Telephones", 1919

April the 1st would perhaps be a more appropriate day to look at the history of what we now call the "mobile phone". Not only was the first serious attempt at a "mobile telephone" considered fraudulent, cartoonists mocked the inconvenience, and indeed the absurdity, of such a device.

"Development of Wireless Telegraphy", 1906 

In early December 1906, the English "Punch" magazine, being a satirical publication renowned for lampooning both people and ideas, published a cartoon as part of their "Forecasts for 1907" series ridiculing the idea of "mobile" communication. Drawn by Lewis Baumer, this cartoon portrays a man and a woman seated in London's Hyde Park, both individually communicating using portable wireless telegraphy equipment. Note the antenna on their heads. The woman is receiving an amatory [expressive love] message and the man is receiving racing results. Both machines are merely small boxes but are capable of printing wireless messages on tape. As Telegraphy was then the primary and fastest means of remotely sending short messages it is perhaps not unsurprising that Baumer envisaged a portable but wireless version of the Telegraph. As LED type screens did not then exist it would naturally be assumed that messages would need to be printed out and in fact such "telegraph" type techonology with messages printed onto a paper strip had already been invented. But for us today, this cartoon would be the closest one could then have possibly come to the idea of "mobile" text messaging using a portable device.

A "Marconi" Wireless Telegraph Receiver
manufactured from 1906 to 1912 

Although wholly in jest, the technology allowing oral messages to actually be sent and received via wireless had also already been invented. Guglielmo Marconi had demonstrated his wireless transmission device to the British Government as early as 1896 going on to make a successful transmission across the English Channel in 1899. So while such technology was not in everyday use it was at least well known. It is interesting that the cartoonist only envisaged that personal portable "wireless" communication would, in the future, be via the medium of printed messages and only receiving rather than transmitting. I very much doubt we would all wish to carry portable 'teleprinters'.

In 1908, Professor Albert Jahnke, along with the rather grandiosely named "Oakland Transcontinental Aerial Telephone and Power Company", claimed to have invented the first "wireless telephone", and duly filed a patent application. Incredulously, such was the disbelief that such technology would even be possible that the company were initially charged with fraud. Although all charges were dropped the technology was evidently still ahead of its time, required further development, or was not then commercially viable, and nothing more appears to have come of it. 

Francis J. McCarty testing his radiotelephone
Transmitter, San Francisco, Oct 1905

But curiously, I note another company, the "McCarty Wireless Telephone Company of Arizona" publicly advertising in April 1908 that they had no connection with the Oakland Transcontinental Company currently facing fraud charges and with the "arrest of the promoters". The McCarty company note that they are still; 

"...pursuing with its experiments to determine whether there is any practical or commercial value in wireless telephony... That spoken language can be transmitted through the medium of the atmosphere, and without the use of any other connection, is an established fact, but whether spoken words can be transmitted to such a distance as to make it a practical utility, is the question to be determined. It is this question that the McCarty Company is now engaged in trying to solve...

With the unfortunate death of the inventor and prime promoter, Francis McCarty, having occurred in May 1906, two of the McCarty Company's investors, bankers William and Tyler Henshaw, had contracted another then well-known inventor, Cyril F. Elwell, to review the potential worth of McCarty's patents. Elwell eventually concluded that the system's apparatus was incapable of ever being refined enough to become an effective radiotelephone system. The Oakland Transcontinental Company's work probably met a similar fate, no doubt not helped by the adverse publicity which would have scared off further investors, even if all charges had been dropped. While the technological hurdles yet to overcome were complex, slow progress would continue to be made, the potential this technology offering to aid communications being evident to all.  

Finnish Inventor Eric Tigerstedt, shown
here using radio equipment, 1915.

Now fast forward to 1917. The first serious contender at a "mobile" telephone appears to have been a patent filed for a "pocket-size folding telephone with a very thin carbon microphone" by Finnish Inventor, Eric Tigerstedt. But without seeing a photo of the design, his invention actually sounds more like the miniaturized "flip phone" of the 1990's, hardly the large "brick" 'Motorola' portable phone that would became commercially available in the 1980's. No further information about this device can be found.

"When We All Have Pocket Telephones" -
A cartoon drawn by W.K. Haselden
published in "The Daily Mirror"
on the 5th March 1919

Development of portable "wireless telephony technology" continued apace and it was only the following year in 1918 that Imperial Germany tested telephone technology on military trains. It should come as no surprise that the military had quickly forseeen the possibilities inherent in this new technology. 

In 1924, "Deutsche Reichbahn", the German National Railways under the Weimar Republic, began a public trial of wireless telephony on trains running between between Berlin and Hamburg. Evidently being successful, wireless telephony would then be introduced on other routes, the German company of "Zugtelephonie AG" [literally meaning 'train telephony') being founded in 1925 to manufacture and supply equipment for both the German National Railways and German Mail services.

Mobile Telephone usage as envisaged by
German Artist Karl Arnold, 1926

Little wonder that in 1926 the Munich based German satirical weekly magazine, "Simplicissimus", published a drawing by caricaturist Karl Arnold entitled "Berlin Wireless Telephony" showing people in the street using and carrying "mobile telephones". The text basically reads; "Presently at corner of Friedichstraße - Behrenstraße [Berlin].... good - wonderful - done - coming straight away". Prophetically, this cartoon published 98 years ago mimics the self same situation we can find ourselves in today and begs the question, has such technology always enriched our lives or have we become enslaved to it?

A fanciful 1957 comic strip from "UT Magazine"
portraying a "Tonton" (Uncle) at the Moscow Festival
calling his family in Paris on a "mobile" phone

Unsurprisingly, throughout the 1950's research into and development of a workable cellular "mobile phone" also took place in Communist Russia, specifically by Soviet Engineer and Inventor, Leonid Kuprayanovich. Shown below (at left) is the Inventor with his LK-2 "Radiofon" device weighing 3kg and dating from 1958. And at right his LK-3 device dating from 1961 now weighing only 70gm and which could be held in the palm of your hand. But note the now seemingly archaic "dial" on both versions so "Blackberry" phone type push button technology still had some way to go.

Leonid Kuprayanovich with his 1958 LK-2
"Radiofon" (at left) and his 1961 LK-3
palm-held version (at right)

The reason this phone never went into production is simply that the infrastructure was not yet in place for mass communication. A proposal had been put forward for ten "base" communication stations to be built in Moscow but the "party elite" appear to have cooled to the idea with development of the "Altai" Radio Telephone system then being progressed, this technology no doubt being easier and more cost effective to implement for wide spread usage. Without any further official support Kuprayanovich then went on to focus his considerable abilities on the development of medical equipment.     

The "Mansfield News Journal" of 18th April 1963
published an article accurately predicting the
widespread use of "Pocket" telephones
in the future.

In April 1963 the "Mansfield News Journal" of Ohio USA, published not only an article accurately predicting the features of the modern "flip" phone but also a photograph of what this may look like. The article stressed however that; "The phone is still in the development stage and far in the future" and that; "It's a laboratory development". Despite this, the various features available on moden day portable mobile phones were predicted with quite startling accuracy although I would perceive that the article would be need to be worded differently today when it comes to assumed household roles!; 

"'s workable, allowing the carrier to make and answer call wherever he may be. Other telephones of the future includes a kitchen loud speaking telephone, and a visual image telephone. The kitchen instrument can be used as a regular telephone, a loudspeaking phone if the housewife happens to be busy preparing a meal, or as an intercom station for the home. The visual image telephone allows the parties to converse by way of a microphone and loud speaker while a miniature television camera transmits the image. The "TV phone" also will have a writer signature transmission system and a conversation tape recorder." 

The first commercially available
Mobile Phone, 1983 -
The Motorola "DynaTAC 8000X
with permanently affixed aerial.

It was not until 1973 that "Motorola" demonstrated their new cellular phone which weighed a whopping 2 kilograms (4.4 lbs). They had in fact already been designing "mobile" phones for cars but these were decidedly power hungry and anything but mobile in their own right. The first commercial cellular network, as we would know it today, was in fact only launched in Japan in 1979. 

Finally, "Motorola" launched the first commercially available mobile telephone in 1983, being the "DynaTAC 8000X". A full charge would take 10 hours with only 30 minutes of talk time. The cost of the phone was also prohibitive, let alone the ongoing subscription to connect to a cellular network. This was initially restricted to main centres and even then with rather patchy reception. In early 1994 I recall a decidedly pushy and obnoxious Real Estate agent standing right in front of me dropping her "brick" mobile phone onto a concrete pathway and I will always remember the look of horror and then dread on her face as she picked it up wondering if her expensive toy was broken. I did rather think at the time that this was a good example of karma! But if you still have an early old "brick" phone it could now be worth a dollar or two. 

A thick & chunky but lightweight "Pantech"
South Korean made analogue
Flip-Phone manufactured c. early 2000's.
[From my own collection]

Post 1983, technology has continued to progress in leaps and bounds, the phones themselves having shrunk, many more options and applications (apps) have transformed usability, while performance and battery life have markedly increased. And now even the screen on the latest "flip" phone folds. But looking back to how cartoonists 100 years ago futuristically viewed "mobile" telephones into the next century, it leaves me wondering what advances we shall make over the next century - and whether this will truly benefit us or in fact hinder us? Most likely a good measure of both. 

All Rights Reserved

Sources :

- Images (unless otherwise stated) from Public Domain

- Wikipedia

- Various Internet resources

- "The Guardian" newspaper

- "Отечественные Мобильники 50-Х"

Sunday 24 March 2024

Royal Related Discoveries (Part One) - The Queen Mother's Chinaware


"Minton" Bone China Set
with a Royal provenance.
[From my own collection]

As a collector, it has always given me great pleasure to discover, with subsequent research or simply through being (I believe) knowledgeable on the subject, that items have not been correctly identified which, in some cases, has added to their subsequent value. And even more so of course when such items are in or come into my own possession.

In August 2004 I was travelling in a hire car with my then employer through Te Puke in the North Island of New Zealand and at my urging we stopped at a large collectible shop which specialized in old china.

On a dusty back shelf in what was a store literally bursting at the seams with old second hand china, I spied a very fine quality 'Minton' bone china cup, saucer, side plate and dinner plate with gold decoration and bearing a Crown. While not exactly at a bargain price, it appealed to me as being not just exceptionally fine china but also rather unusual. Upon inquiring about it, the shop owner told me that it had most likely come from British Foreign Embassy use and should probably never have ever left there but could give me no further information. It had probably simply been bought as part of a large auction or estate lot.

Dinnerplate from the "Minton" Royal Service
[From my own collection]

But I bought the set which I then placed in a china cabinet and quietly forgot about it. It was not until just a couple of years ago when I did some further research that I discovered that, incredibly, this china appears to have actually come from the disposal of items from Clarence House after the death of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, in March 2002. 

Matching Dinnerware Items sold by a Dealer in Windsor
[Source :]

Try as I may I cannot obtain any further information other than the fact that an established (and I believe reputable) dealer in Windsor (UK), and who specializes in Royal related memorabilia, sold this china, including similarly monogrammed milk jug(s), water jug(s), tureen(s) and sugar bowl(s). As to how he came by these items he writes;

"...a rare Bone China water-jug produced by the Company Minton as part of the Royal Household Dinner-service for Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother used in Clarence House in the 1980`s. The piece shows the Royal Crown in superb gilding but does not show the letters E R due to the pattern looking to similar to the official set for the Queen . The piece was sold as part of a Butler sale many years ago on which this was purchased by me together with lots of other Royal Household pieces."

"Minton China - [19]47" Impression
[From my own collection]

I have no reason to doubt this attribution as certainly the quality of this bone china set is of an exceptionally high standard. What I find intriguing though, is that the side plate is stamped with an indentation of "Feb 1945" while the dinner plate is stamped "47" for 1947. All the pieces have stamped Minton marks that pre-date 1951. 

As His Majesty King George VI died on the 6th February 1952, and assuming the attribution of Royal Household Service is indeed correct, that would mean that this service was obviously in use at Buckingham Palace during the latter years of the late King George and Queen Elizabeth's reign. I cannot however find one genuine example of standard fine china commonly used in Royal Household Service during the latter reign of King George VI. 

"Minton" China Mark in use until 1950
[From my own collection]

After the Accession of Queen Elizabeth II, the Queen Mother obviously had such items of her household china transferred to Clarence House where they simply continued in use. That new items of Minton china used by Queen Elizabeth II included an "ER II" cypher would help to confirm the Dealer's description of events although perhaps he had not realized (although he should have) that the china was older than he imagined. 

Matching Dinnerware items sold by a Dealer in Windsor
[Source :]

Having not found one example of British period embassy china I am unable to totally aboslutely disprove the Te Puke Dealer's assumed attribution but my feeling is that the Windsor Dealer's story is mostly correct, he just had the time period wrong. Additionally, the fact that the set is of fairly thin and fragile bone china and included some rather fancy jugs along with elegant lidded tureens and sugar bowls would indicate rather more than standard diplomatic service usage, especially under a post war Labour Government (1945 - 1951) where austerity would be the norm. And the question of how this china ended up in New Zealand will no doubt remain a mystery. Had they bought it then brought it half way around the world with them or had they perhaps been an employee of the Royal Household at some period and "surreptitiously purloined" this set for themselves as a souvenir? 

If anyone can add more information about this china, I would be happy to hear from you and can be contacted using the "Email Me" function in the right hand menu bar.   

Please click HERE to read the second instalment.

All Rights Reserved

Sources :

- My own collection

- Various Internet Resources

Saturday 16 March 2024

The Iconic 1965 "Crown Lynn" Air New Zealand Dinnerware Set

The original  full set of "Crown Lynn" dinnerware
manufactured for Air New Zealand, 1965
[From my own collection]

This is the story of what has now become a classic New Zealand icon. In 1965, the newly re-branded Air New Zealand, which was shortly introducing new Douglas DC8 airliners on its Pacific routes, desired dinnerware for their first class services which would "showcase New Zealand to the world and what the country had to offer".

The pre-eminent New Zealand pottery firm of "Crown Lynn" based at New Lynn in West Auckland were tasked with designing and producing a set that filled this somewhat challenging brief. What they achieved is acknowledged as a triumph, now being considered a truly iconic piece of New Zealand artwork and design. 

Te Papa Tongarewa, the Museum of New Zealand, describes the planning that went into the design for this set; 

"Jet flights were glamourous affairs and the national airline chose this design as part of their plan to showcase the best New Zealand had to offer in terms of food and wine, natural flora, and Māori culture."

Close-up of the "Tohora" motif on the
Air New Zealand dinner plate.
[From my own collection]

The New Zealand pottery firm of "Crown Lynn" was, by 1965, already a well established manufacturer of well designed, and more importantly for an airline, lightweight crockery. Their chosen design, "Tohora", would be superimposed on an attractive turquoise glaze which in fact mimicked the primary colour used on the new DC8 airliners. The use of turquoise had in fact a long history with the airline, being used by their previous namesake, Tasman Empire Airways Limited (TEAL), and would continue to be used by Air New Zealand for the next few decades.   

The "Tohora" motif, being a striking example of indigenous New Zealand Māori kōwhaiwhai iconography, symbolizes a 'tohora' or whale, often being be found carved on the frontage of pātaka (storehouses) and which, rather appropriately, signifies "abundance".

Val Monk, who has researched and written a detailed history of "Crown Lynn", notes that; "The first design for this ware was gold on turquoise, but the gold wouldn't stand up to industrial dishwashers so they chose brown instead". While a traditional Māori design, which individual artist was responsible for the final design and placement on the set is unfortunately not noted.

The Air New Zealand cup with distinctively
shaped handle, manufactured 1965.
[From my own collection]

This 10 piece dinner set comprises of the standard colour glaze dinnerware pieces for which the company was by now succesfully producing in some quantity for the New Zealand market. This included a dinner plate, side plate, cup and saucer, and dessert bowl. The cup featured a striking new design with a distinctive stylized handle. A heavier vitrified version of this same design, but in a pleasant maroon shade, would be introduced from 1971 on the New Zealand Government Railways new express services. I believe that, apart from the eye catching design, part of the reason for the reasonably wide styling of cup and the handle design is that it made stacking the cups possible and having tried this myself on another example I can confirm that this would appear to be correct. Thus another example of excellent and well thought out commercial design. In fact, a reproduction version of the cup and saucer (but with very subtle differences to the original) were made by Steiner Ceramics and sold as part of Air New Zealand's 75th anniversary celebrations in 2015, this attribution being clearly marked on the underside of each piece.

Dining on board an Air New Zealand DC8 and
featuring the new "Crown Lynn'" dinnerware.
[From an Air New Zealand promotional photo]

The full Air New Zealand set perfectly suited not just the specific in flight dining and space requirements on board their airliners but also enabled the efficient serving of extensive and elaborately presented meals. As previously noted, the airline's first class food menu also sought to showcase New Zealand food and wine which would, as we can see from the period photos, be presented and served with considerable 1960's styled flair and panache. The airline determined that service in the air on their new DC8's would stand up to anything offered on the ground and evidently took some pride in this fact. 

The exquisite Air New Zealand
Salt & Pepper shakers
[From my own collection]

Added to the basic five piece dinnerware set would be a new and distinctively shaped soup bowl (obviously with no intention of re-using the standard dessert bowl), an oval vegetable plate, a butter dish, and I must say, particularly attractive salt and pepper shakers. Again, some thought obviously went into new and very practical but visually attractive designs for these items. The reverse on all pieces carried an "Air New Zealand" and "Crown Lynn Potteries" attribution but curiously with the same "Maroro" or flying fish symbol which had been the company logo for Tasman Empire Airlines Limited, so a real throwback to the airline's former identity. The new cutlery (of which I hold two examples) also carried the old "Maroro" logo along with "Air New Zealand" so the change to the new company logo and identity was rather slow off the mark in comparison to the design and production of the new dinnerware by "Crown Lynn". 

I assume this was simply due to the "re-branding" from (the New Zealand Government owned) Tasman Empire Airways on the 1st April 1965 and the delivery of the new Douglas DC8 aircraft from the 20th July 1965, so time was rather limited. The Douglas Aircraft Company, who had been given the order for the new aircraft as far back as 1962, had however anticipated the change of name so painting of the airline name onto the already painted fuselages was deliberately left until the very last. But the old airline name of "TEAL", having been pre-painted, would remain emblazoned on the Air New Zealand DC8 tail fins until as late as 1967.

The backstamp on the "Crown Lynn" designed
Air New Zealand dinnerware showing the
old TEAL "Maroro" Flying Fish symbol.
[From my own collection]

The matter of a new corporate logo simply appears to have also been of lessor priority than the basic airline renaming and rebranding. I believe I have seen the new, and still well known, "Koru" logo on at least the butter dish as, apparently being a promotional item, these were perhaps manufactured in more than just one run. But with all other pieces of this dinner service obviously being manufactured in one large bulk order the old "Maroro" logo could still be seen on the underside of the existing dinnerware until it was discontinued nine years later in 1973, but perhaps past this date on the cutlery. Overall, all pieces of this new service were practical, reasonably durable, visually attractive, and specifically designed to suit the needs of First Class dining on Air New Zealand services. 

The small butter dish remains the the most commonly available piece today due to the fact that they were manufactured in quantity and given out by the airline as a "complimentary" gift. An example in good condition will today (2024) still sell for at least NZ$30.00 I do not however know if this dish was an occasional promotional giveaway item or given to all on board First Class passengers. But what I do know is that it came in a small box with a printed explanation of the Māori motif which reads; 

"The motif on the enclosed complimentary ceramic dish depicts the stylized Maori [sic Māori] representation of the head of the whale or tohora. This old design, symbolizing abuddance, traditionally dominately the elaborately carved facia boards of food storehouses (pataka) in the fortified villages of the New Zealand Maori [sic] whose artistry is among the most advanced of the Polynesian people". 

Dining on board an Air New Zealand DC8 and
featuring the new "Crown Lynn'" dinnerware.
[From an Air New Zealand promotional photo]

As with the classic New Zealand railways cup and saucer, this Air New Zealand dinnerware set has now reached 'iconic' status which is a testament to not only its design but also the imagery that it represents of international travel and of New Zealand's indiginous culture and traditions. Prices for items that come onto the market have, over recent years, climbed substantially and to the extent that many would be collectors have given up on collecting the complete set. Cup and saucer duos and the salt and pepper shakers in good, undamaged condition appear to now be the rarest items and while they come onto the market occasionally it will require rather deep pockets to beat off other serious collectors. And I do wonder if some collect this set as an art investment with the not unrealistic expectation that prices will continue to rise. The "brown" Tohora pattern, actually being a very dark shade of brown, certainly appears to have worn reasonably well and most examples show no more than superficial knife marks. Very worn, cracked or chipped examples will exhibit damage that either incurred during or after Air New Zealand 'in flight' usage and would certainly not have continued to be used in passenger service in that condition, perhaps being disposed of to staff members.

A reproduction of a coaster used to promote the
new Air New Zealand DC8 International air
services, designed 1965.
[From my own collection]

As to my own full set, which is in excellent condition and carries the original 1965 production "Mororo" flying fish logo, it is my intention that it will never be on-sold but will eventually, and subject to collection policies and the professionalism of the institution, be donated to a securely managed public museum - should they wish to accept it of course. It would give me the greatest pleasure to know that others can view and also enjoy this truly beautiful set which is now an intrinsic part of not only succesful New Zealand design and manufacture but also of how New Zealand, through the medium of Air New Zealand and international air travel, literally presented itself to the world through the use of practical and exceptionally well designed dinnerware.   

All Rights Reserved

Sources :

- All items, unless otherwise stated, from my own collection

- Te Papa Tongarewa / Museum of New Zealand

- New Zealand Pottery Net

- Air New Zealand