Wednesday, 21 December 2016

"Listen to my Christmas Greeting" - A Miniature 78 RPM Festive Season Gramophone Recording

"Listen to my Christmas Greeting"

This post may look vaguely familiar to regular readers of my Blog. I have in fact featured this very rare miniature 78 rpm gramophone Christmas greeting card on a previous occasion.  But the difference this time is that my original master recording is now, thanks to some clever electronic wizardry, playing at something now approaching the correct speed. While this is still not a professional sound transfer I rather feel that the "scratchy" nature of the recording lends a more authentic air to this almost 90 year old recording. 

My family considered this Christmas card to just be a novelty card and my Great Aunt related to me that it was in fact some years later that any one realised that it was actually playable! The card was manufactured and sold by Raphael Tuck & Sons Ltd of England being sold as "Talkie" Christmas cards in boxes of three. 

Raphael Tuck and Sons went into the business of producing a range of gramophone record postcards in 1929. The records themselves were made by the "Worldecho Records Ltd" company (which went bankrupt in the 1930's) and are apparently made of a resorcinol-formaldehyde resin over a heavy card so are thus somewhat fragile. Cards were sold with an additional "protector" for posting to avoid damage in transit. 

All I know is that the sender was a Mr Robert H. Young (I believe an old friend from Lanarkshire in Scotland) and the recipients were Mr William and Mrs Agnes Watson of "Mayfield", Heddon Bush in Southland New Zealand. The latter died in May 1931 and May 1932 respectively. Therefore this Christmas greeting card recording dates dates from 1929 at the earliest up to 1930 at the very latest. 

The centre label, although now slightly torn, features a Robin.

Click on the You Tube link below to hear the message. 

Further below is a transcript of the actual message.

Enjoy !

[Church bells]

"Isn't it jolly, to hear the merry sound of these bells, reminding us that Christmas is with us once again. Whenever I hear them, they seem to be calling the whole world together in the common bond of fellowship and goodwill

[more bells].

At this festive season, I am thinking especially of you and wish you a happy Christmas and a bright and prosperous New Year.

I know you that will be receiving a lot of cards conveying greetings from friends and well wishers but none will be more hearty or more sincere than these which I now express."

[more Church bells]

Sunday, 18 December 2016

What To Buy A Soldier for Christmas, December 1916

Mackintosh's Toffee de Luxe

In this Blog, we primarily take a look at what Christmas gifts for 1916 were being recommended by British manufacturers and retailers of the period as being suitable for servicemen in the military and naval forces during the 'Great War' of 1914-1918. These are taken from "The Graphic", a magazine which was widely sold throughout the British Empire including the United States of America through their agents, "The International News Co." of New York. All items are from my own collections.

This charming embroidered Christmas Card with the NZEF Army Badge
emblem was sent by my Uncle to his Mother in December 1918
[From my own collection]

Obviously, servicemen and servicewomen serving overseas were themselves limited in what they could send back home. The New Zealand military authorities (and no doubt other countries) helpfully provided all members of their forces serving overseas with a pre-printed Christmas card to send back home to friends, family and loved-ones. Although dating from December 1918, this embroidered example was sent to my grandmother by my uncle while awaiting his return home from England after the end of the war.

The "Army Button" Charm
[From my own collection]

A couple of small items I hold could just as easily have been sent by servicemen to a wife or loved ones at home. The above World War One era "Army Charm" button would have been the ideal small present for a soldier on active service overseas to send to his wife or mother back home to wear "in solidarity" and for good luck.

Silver pin made by Alex Wood, 1915
[From my own collection]

This skillfully engraved pin, being made from a silver UK sixpenny coin, was sent to my 16 year old aunt around Christmas 1915 by her own aunt in Edinburgh. The latter records that it had been made by a soldier named Alex Wood (possibly of Colinton), who had been at Gallipoli, and then France and was probably back home recuperating from war injuries and making these brooches as a form of rehabilitation. I would love to find out more about this serviceman. 

So, let us now look at some of the gifts suggested for servicemen and military workers (also for women serving in the forces), including those who were recuperating from war injuries or had been disabled. I found the five shilling hampers for "starved prisoners [of war]" in Germany very interesting and the fact that it did not need to be for any particular allied prisoner but a straight out gift for a prisoner of war to be chosen by "The Daily Graphic". I do hope the hampers arrived before Christmas Day and what a thrill it would have given the recipients as indeed all these gifts would have been.

Phillips' 'Military' Soles and Heels

Carters Self-Propelled Bath-Chairs and Hand-Tricycles

Watson's "Spansa" Pocket Set

An original colour tinted Advertisement
for McClinton's Shaving Cream

"Valet" Auto Strop Safety Razor

Waterman's Ideal Fountain Pen

Finest Sheffield Steel "Service" Knife

Adjustable Wheel Chair and Adjustable Reclining Couch
from J. and A. Carter, New Cavendish Street, London 

Wright's Coal Tar Soap and Shaving Soap

The "Onoto" Fountain Pen

"Gillette" Safety Razor

"Gong Soups" Made by
"OXO Ltd", London

"Foot's" Adjustable Chair-Couch

A Silver Cigarette Case with the Allied Flags
From J.C. Vickery 

A Sterling Silver Double Row Cigarette
Case with Enamelled Regimental Badge

"Smith's" Luminous Allies Watch
From C. Smith & Son, Ltd, Piccadilly  

"Royal Vinolia Cream" for the Munitions Worker

"Spinet" Fine Old Virginia Oval
Cork Tipped Cigarettes

Christmas Hampers for Starved Prisoners
in German Prisoner of War Camps

"Evans' "Antiseptic Pastilles

"Beetham's" La Rola Toilet Milk
for the Nurse & Munitions Worker

Copyright : All images, unless otherwise stated, have been published and may be freely copied for non-commercial and academic use provided this site is acknowledged.

Sunday, 11 December 2016

Dunedin's First Public Clock - A Correction and Update

Dunedin's First Public Clock (downward arrow)
above "Beverly Watchmaker" (horizontal arrow),
in Princes street, Dunedin, taken 1860.
[Source : Te Papa Tongarewa]

I have, in the last few days, uncovered some surprising new information, which however, now means I have made a factual error in a Blog I wrote about Dunedin's first public clock. For the sake of accuracy, and especially in regards to Dunedin's early horological history, I feel I need to relate this latest but rather interesting discovery. This has therefore slightly altered what I had previously written in my blog on early timekeeping in Dunedin [link here].

It was after seeing an old 1864 photograph on a "Built in Dunedin Blog" and noting a clock above the pediment of a building of which I was previously unaware that alerted me to this omission. This photo, which is in the Toitū Otago Settler's Museum Archives, was not publicly accessible via Internet and therefore I had simply never seen it before. The writer of this blog gave no information about this old building or of the original occupier(s) and there was no reference to the clock. But what I have discovered is quite fascinating and relates to the still well known Dunedin Watchmaker and Jeweller Arthur Beverly who occupied these premises and put up Dunedin's first public clock. I will also in this blog relate a little history of Beverly and of the watchmakers who were also subsequently in business on this site.

The location of Beverly's Watchmaker's shop in Princess street
highlighted with an arrow. Photo by William Meluish, 1860.
[Source : Te Papa Tongarewa]

While I could not read the name of the owner of the building on the frontage of the Toitū 1864 photo I was at least able to eventually locate a much higher resolution photograph in Te Papa taken in 1860 which, when looking at it very closely under magnification, was clear enough for me to only just make out the name "Beverly Watchmaker" above the shop, the building being shared with "Cosmopolitan" (the "Cosmopolitan Clothing and Outfitting Mart") alongside. This 1860 image, being a gelatin silver print and with such fine detail being visible, is a credit to the "Photographic Artist" William Meluish (died London 1889, aged 65 years). It appears that the original collodion wet plate glass negative has not survived which is unfortunate as it may have provided even more detail. Having seen this photographic process demonstrated some years ago I know the great skill required to capture an outdoors image such as this.

Having worked for seventeen years as a Photographic Archivist I am also well aware of how photographs and even the minutest detail contained within them, especially if an accurate date and location is known, can be an absolutely invaluable tool for research, especially when used in conjunction with archival records. This was part and parcel of my daily work and something that I immensely enjoyed and with some considerable success. So, using the combination of photographs and records we can often reach some very interesting conclusions. This 1860 photograph is most definitely a case in point and I will detail my research for you and illustrate how I have used this and other photographs to confirm my assumptions.

My recent blog on the History of Timekeeping in Dunedin noted a published reference that Mr Arthur Beverly, a Watchmaker of Princes Street in Dunedin, had erected a clock over his premises on or just before October 1860. This is factually correct. But I highlighted this clock as being atop what I had assumed to be his former watchmaking business opposite the Otago Provincial Government Buildings near The Exchange. Although this building did indeed have a clock over the pediment I now know this not to have been Beverly's original premises or clock, having most likely been put up by another Watchmaker and Jeweller, Mr Julius Hyman, when he moved into this new building around October 1866. I have now found conclusive evidence that, as at 1860, Beverly's shop had in fact always been located further up Princes street - and had its own a clock above the pediment. This is the clock shown in the 1860 Te Papa photo and the 1864 Toitū photo used on the "Built in Dunedin" Blog. I have not shown the latter image here as I have not obtained permission to do so nor paid the requisite NZD$55.00 reproduction fee!

Beverly's Earliest Known Business Premises -
In this 1860 image I believe Beverley's earlier premises were
second from left next to Wilkinson's Medical Hall at far left.
[Source Te Papa Tongarewa] 

The first published reference to Beverley occupying premises in Princes street is dated the 1st May 1858, having arrived from Melbourne earlier that year and bringing with him "a stock of jewellery, clocks and watches". At this date he is noted as occupying premises "Adjoining the Medical Hall [Wilkinson's Medical Hall], Princes Street". By October of that year he simply lists his address as "Princes Street". But on the 15th September 1860 I note a "Robert Mackay, Tailor and Clothier" advertising "...that he has Commenced Business in the above line in that shop in Princes-street, lately occupied by Mr Beverly, Watchmaker...". But Mr Beverly still continues to advertise his business as being in "Princes Street".

We now usefully find James R. Hood, trading as the "Cosmopolitan Clothing and Outfitting Mart", advertising from the 1st September 1860 that he had moved from Maclaggan street to Princes street and later on the 15th December 1860 that his business premises were specifically located "Next door to Mr Beverly, Watchmaker". This now fits perfectly with the names appearing above the shop frontage in the 1860 Te Papa photo. This is now Beverly's second known premises as we know that the above Robert McKay occupied his former premises over the road (shown above) in September of that same year.

So we can now say, with absolute certainty, that the report of Beverly having a public clock above his premises in October 1860 will be this same small building with upper dormer windows shared with the above Mr Hood. A close up of this building and of the clock is shown in the image at the very top of this page. I must admit that advertisements of the period state that Beverly had his premises opposite the Bank of Otago (being further up Princes street from The Exchange) and I should have picked this up but unfortunately this critical piece of information simply got overlooked in a mountain of information and references relating to watchmakers and clocks.

Beverly's Business sold to
Isaac Herman, late 1864
[Source : Otago Daily Times]

On the 31st October 1864 Beverley advertises that he was retiring from business. Beverly's "Te Ara" biography claims that he gave up business due to the widespread financial crisis of that year and sold his watchmaking and jewellery retail business in Princes street to Mr Isaac Herman. But an informed source advises me that he simply sold his business in order to devote more time to private projects. The Toitū photo dated 1864 is the last confirmed sighting of Beverly's old pediment clock although I cannot tell from the photo if Beverly was still occupying the premises or his successor.

From the 10th November 1864, Herman advertises that "he has succeeded to the business formerly carried on by Mr A. Beverly, and has now re-opened with a first-class assortment." and "Note The Address - I. Herman (Late A. Beverly), Princes street, Dunedin." Another newspaper advertisement on the same day additionally - and crucially - adds, that he was in business in Princes street "Opposite the Bank of Otago." We know that in 1864 the Bank of Otago was indeed located over the road from Beverly's (second) shop and is the site of the present day National Bank building so this also confirms that Herman's business was in the same premises as Beverly had occupied.

This means that "Beverly's clock", being alluded to in Otago Provincial Government minutes of September 1863, can only have been the clock shown in the image at the top of this page as we definitely now know that between 1860 and 1864 Beverly had simply not moved premises. So while it seemed perfectly plausible to me that the Speaker suggest to members of the Provincial Government that they regulate their watches by Mr Beverly's clock, virtually by just looking out the window and over the road, there was in fact then no clock over the road until around September 1866 nor could Beverly's clock be seen from the Government buildings.

Sale of Herman's Business to George Young,
"Otago Daily Times", 26 Dec 1865
[Source : Papers Past]

We next find that Isaac Herman sold his business to Mr George Young who advertises on the 5th January 1866 that "...he has removed to those centrally situated Premises lately occupied by Mr Arthur Beverly, (opposite the Bank of Otago)...". In turn, auctioneers acting on behalf of Mr Herman advertise on the 22nd January 1866 the sale of his remaining stock the following day, the auction being held at the Empire Hotel. Young therefore commenced business in Herman's / Beverly's old shop with his own stock.

George Young's removal to premises
"lately occupied by Mr Arthur Beverly",
"Evening Star", 22 Jan 1866
[Source : Papers Past]

Despite Beverly having sold his business and moved out some 14 months previous Young still alludes to it having been "lately occupied by Mr Beverly". I suspect that Young hoped to 'trade' on the long established and very respected "Beverly" name, especially as he was operating from the same premises and considering that Herman had had such a short tenure.

As late as the 25th September 1867 Mr Julius Hyman, another Watchmaker and Jeweller, being situated over the road from the Otago Provincial Government buildings by The Exchange, bought out the remaining jewellery stock in the estate of the now deceased Isaac Herman. This is therefore the only connection between Mr Hyman and the former Beverly / Herman and current Young business further up Princes street. From October 1866 Hyman advertises from "No 1 Chambers" and "opposite the Post Office and Government Buildings" so I am assuming these apparently new premises, including his own pediment clock, dates to this period in time.

On the 13th April 1867 Young advertises a "bona fide clearing sale" as he had sold his business with "possession to be given on the 10th May next [1867]". John Hislop, who had established his own business in 1866, bought Young's business, then advertising himself as "successor to George Young, late Arthur Beverly" and "Exactly opposite the Bank of Otago". He was still trading from this site in 1870.

The old Beverly / Hyman shop was located on the site of the present day 204 Princes street which is just next door and immediately to the south of "Eldon Chambers" at 192 Princes street that "Built in Dunedin" wrote about. Small detail in an 1870 photo used in the same blog and comparing this to the Toitū 1864 photo also confirms my identification.

Mr John Hislop
[Source : Cyclopedia of New Zealand]

Young signed an agreement with Hislop dated the 5th June 1867 that he would be "out of business in Dunedin" for two years. During this period Young ran a watchmaking and jewellery business in Oamaru. This agreement expired in July 1869 and Young then immediately set about opening a new business in Dunedin. The Cyclopedia of New Zealand, being published in 1905, states that "The Princes Street site was first occupied by Messrs. G. & T. Young in 1865, a freehold being acquired subsequently. The present building is constructed of brick and concrete and is two stories in height, with solid concrete cellar."

This cannot be correct as when Young was opening his new business "opposite the Bank of New South Wales" Hislop was then still occupying the same original site of Beverly's shop "opposite [the] Bank of Otago". From a Hocken Collections photo I believe Young's were four premises up from Hislops.

Looking up Princes Street in 1870.  A clock can be
seen extending out from Hislops premises just down
from Wilkie's. Youngs were then further up the street.
Burton Bros. Photo.
[Source : Te Papa Tongarewa]

I do however wonder how long Young or Hislop continued to use Beverly's old pediment clock. Beverly's old pre 1860 building was definitely gone by 1870 or at least radically altered and enlarged. Hislop had placed another two sided clock extending out at right angles over the footpath, being (at least by 1880) surrounded by ornamental scrolled wrought ironwork. But this was nothing in comparison to Young's (literally) 'over the top'  ornamental clock arch just up the road which I also mentioned in my second clock blog.

In March 1880 John Hislop, "Late Arthur Beverly", advertises his premises as being "Exactly opposite the National Bank, Princes street, Dunedin". The National Bank building still exists today so is a good point of reference. On the 26th May 1881 Hislop is noted as operating his business from "temporary" premises opposite the Standard Insurance Office in Princes street, being "near the site of his former shop". The Standard building also survives which indicates that Hislop moved slightly down Princes street, in fact possibly just next door. "The Evening Star" advertisements do not note this change of premises but this can easily be put down to using an outdated printing block.
The Opening of Hislops new Premises,
"Evening Star", 27 Dec 1881

John Hislop moved into his new premises in December 1881 and again "Exactly opposite the National Bank". This appears to be the still extant and ornate building located at 204 Princes street being originally named "Hislop's Exchange Court" then later just "Exchange Court". The curious hole in the upper pediment, which has always intrigued me, was apparently to be fitted up with a wind indicator with the opening covered with glass and illuminated at night. An "Otago Daily Times" article describes the rather elegant and apparently quite spacious and opulent new building HERE. The existing facade gives us but a glimpse of what had once been in terms of interior appointments.

204 Princes Street (in centre) as seen 28 Dec 2016
[From my own collection]

On the 6th July 1888, I note this advertisement; "Wanted Known - J. Hislop, Watchmaker, has severed connection with former premises. Removed five doors higher up." But then I find that on the same date "The Exchange Court Watch, Clock and Jewellery Depot" advertising as having bought Hislops "Entire stock-in-trade" and "book debts" and would continue in business "in the premises lately occupied by John Hislop, known as Exchange Court". But here I must end the history of this building and of its previous incarnations and occupiers as this leads into a more modern era.

Finally, and aside from not knowing its eventual fate, I believe the early story of Beverly's 1860 pediment clock, being Dunedin's first public clock by a clear two and a half years - and of his premises - can now finally be told with some considerable degree of accuracy. I will update this blog should further relevant information come to hand.

Timeline :

- Jan 1858 : Arthur Beverly, Watchmaker, arrives from Sydney
- 1st May 1858 : Beverly opens premises on east side of Princes street
- Sep 1860 : Beverly moves across road to premises on west side of Princes street
- Oct 1860 : Beverly erects a public clock above his shop pediment
- 1864 : Beverly's pediment clock still visible above his premises
- 31st Oct 1864 : Beverly retires from business
- Nov 1864 : Isaac Herman, Watchmaker & Jeweller, takes over Beverly's former business, premises and stock.
- Dec 1865 : Herman sells his business (but not his stock) to George Young
- Jan 1866 : George Young, Watchmaker & Jeweller, takes over Herman's former business and premises with his own stock
- Apr 1867 : Young sells his business to John Hislop
- 10 May 1867 : John Hislop, Watchmaker & Jeweller, takes possession of Young's former business and premises
- 25 Sept 1867 : Julius Hyman buys remaining stock (only) from estate Isaac Herman
- 1870 : Hislop still in business in Young's former premises. Original 1860 pediment clock removed by this date
- May 1881 : Hislop now in business from temporary premises nearby
- Dec 1881 : Hislop moves to new premises, "Hislops Exchange Court", on site of his old shop
- 6 Jul 1888 : Hislop moves six doors up Princes street
- 6 Jul 1888 : "The Exchange Court Watch, Clock and Jewellery Depot" take over the former Hislop shop

Sources & Bibliography :

- "Built in Dunedin" Blog
- "Cyclopedia of New Zealand" - Volume 4, Otago and Southland, 1905 (from my own collection)
- "Otago Centennial 1848 - 1948" (from my own collection)
- Papers Past [National Library of New Zealand / Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa]
- Te Papa Tongarewa 

Monday, 5 December 2016

William Ellacott - An Almost Forgotten Early Otago Pioneer and South Seas Adventurer

A grainy but quite striking photograph
of William Ellacott, taken in the 1870's
[Source : "The Otago Witness", 20 Aug 1913]

A very interesting email contact this year with a relative of the now somewhat forgotten English born early Central Otago pioneer and South Seas adventurer William Ellacott piqued my interest in further exploring this gentleman's decidedly varied and seemingly quite fascinating life. Over his lifetime Ellacott had been crew on a sailing vessel to India, an early Central Otago gold miner, store keeper, ferryman, river rafter and lake shipper, a Queensland gold prospector, and latterly a South Seas Island cotton and coconut plantation owner and sea trader around French Polynesia before finally returning home to live out his twilight years in Devon England. The story of his surprisingly adventurous life turned out to be even more enthralling than I had originally envisaged. While this is a slightly longer blog it is well worth the read so grab a comfy chair.

We know that Ellacott worked much of his time in New Zealand in partnership with his good friend George Hassing. In his final years Hassing touchingly describes Ellacott as "my dear faithful old partner" while Ellacott endearingly refers to Hassing as "dear boy" and "Your old friend". But it is very evident that after sharing so many adventures in life and corresponding with each other till Ellacott's death in 1912, their friendship and mutual respect ran deep.

While we know that Ellacott kept diaries of his pioneering life in Central Otago during the 1860's and 70's, these diaries, despite Hassing's best efforts to ensure they were preserved for posterity, have mysteriously and most unfortunately disappeared but more of this later. My efforts to reconstruct Ellacott's life has therefore been somewhat frustrating and I believe he would have been more widely known had the diaries been extant or at least available for research and / or published.  

To have had Ellacott's day to day account of these early pioneering days would simply have been invaluable to modern researchers and historians. So of necessity this Blog is based on references from a number of secondary sources but primarily those of his good friend and correspondent, George Magnus Hassing, whom I wrote about HERE including a few newspaper reports. Hassing was latterly a very successful schoolteacher, a good friend of my Grandfather, and in fact taught my two Uncles and Aunt. He had a quite wonderful mastery of the English language which truly bring his stories and anecdotes to life. It is at least thanks to him that we know as much as we do about Ellacott's early life.

Taking to The Sea

William Ellacott, born 1836 at Hatherleigh in Devon England, took to the sea early in his life, as did (significantly as it would turn out) his brother John. The story of William's early seafaring life is unfortunately unknown. It was, however, as crew on the voyage of the clipper 'Pride of the Ocean' from London for Bombay [now known as Mumbai] India in the summer of 1857 that William Ellacott first met a Dane by the name of Niels [George] Magnus Hassing who would then become his business partner and lifelong friend.

The Indian Rebellion of 1857

In Bombay both Ellacott and Hassing visited the soldiers' barracks "and fraternized with the troops just returned from Cawnpore after the shocking massacre at that town". Thus they heard first hand reports of this dreadful event which is best described on Wikipedia. This was the time of the rebellion against the rule of the British East India Company, being now known as "The Indian Rebellion of 1857" but in fact continued to July 1859. This bitterly fought rebellion led to the dissolution of the East India Company in 1858, the country thereafter being directly governed by the Crown under the new British Raj. Ellacott and Hassing's personal views on the rights and wrongs of the atrocities and retributions at Cawnpore [Kanpur] are not recorded but this event proved to be a turning point in hardening British support against the rebels and their cause.

The Lure of a New Adventure in New Zealand

Both returning to London in 1858, Ellacott and Hassing then parted company, the former obtaining employment in the city while Hassing sailed out to New Zealand in February 1859. But obviously having already formed a strong bond, both continued to correspond with each other. And by this fortuitous meeting and correspondence there followed a new and quite different chapter in his life. The desire for further adventure evidently got the better of Ellacott after Hassings favourable accounts of New Zealand prompted him to leave England in 1861 and join the latter in search of new opportunities and adventures.

A Happy Reunion

Hassing notes that he made his way from the West Wanaka Station up to Christchurch (a difficult journey of a few days) in the summer of 1861 "to greet the arrival of an old shipmate and subsequent business partner, the late Mr William Ellacott". This included walking the steep bridle-track over the Port Hills to reach the sea port of Lyttelton where Ellacott landed (the 2.7 km Moorhouse Railway Tunnel under the Port Hills did not open until 1867). As to which ship Ellacott arrived on is not recorded. It would have been a happy reunion with Hassing then spending "a week or so" in Christchurch, presumably with Ellacott.

Startling News

Hassing next relates that in August 1862 the Christchurch papers published a report that the prospectors Hartley and Riley had discovered a large quantity of gold on the banks of the Clutha river in Central Otago. Thereupon "my mate" [William Ellacott] rode "post haste" from Christchurch up to Waipara Station where Hassing was then working to inform him of "the startling news". Immediately packing his swag both men made their way back and over the Port Hills to Lyttelton where they left on a small vessel bound for Dunedin. We know from a published notice dated March 1863 that Ellacott had an unclaimed letter waiting for him in Christchurch. At this time we know he was in Central Otago so I wonder if he ever received it?

Gold Fever

Ellacott and Hassing found Dunedin to be bustling with activity with "hundreds eager to get away to the new [gold] rush". Along with four others who had sailed down the coast with them, they then left Dunedin by a small steamer for Waikouaiti. This coastal settlement north of Dunedin was a convenient point to head inland for the Dunstan goldfields via the Shag Valley. After procuring "tucker [food], tent and tools" at Johnny Jones' store "a merry, sanguine, and happy party of six" headed inland on foot.

A Merry Band of Men

The story of this long inland trek, being joined by others seeking their fortune on the goldfields so that the number now reached twenty five, would in itself make for an interesting blog.

Camping at Coal Creek on a beautiful calm evening dry manuka scrub was gathered to build a dozen or so great bonfires for boiling billies and cooking damper [flat bread]. With two men playing their cornets the camp resonated all evening to the sound of music and the singing of English, Scotch and Irish songs till after mid-night.

An amusing story is related of the soup served in pannikins at Mr WD Murison's Station on the Maniototo Station. The dish rag was hung by the "junior [partner]" over the crossbar in the chimney but later found to be missing. It was later retrieved from the soup pot and some asserted that it had added "a piquant flavour to the decoction".

And at "Mutton Town" the canvas store was run by a Jewish firm, "Levy & Co." which included one Philip Levy, later to be hanged as one of the notorious Burgess and Sullivan gang of Bushrangers.

Three to Four Ounces of Gold a Day

Obtaining Miner's Rights at a cost of £1 each from Vincent Pyke, the first Commissioner for the Otago goldfields, a suitable claim for six men (including Ellacott and Hassing) was found and marked off at Butcher's Gully which lies just to the south of Alexandra. The river wash averaged around half a penny weight to the dish. As Ellacott was the most expert at panning he was given this task. All the gold obtained from the claim was, for safekeeping, placed in a large cone-shaped rock rising about five feet above the river with a foot deep hollow in its centre, being on average about three to four ounces of gold a day for over a week. Some forty to fifty bags of auriferous [gold bearing] wash dirt off the river bank were carried up and stacked up by a steep bank bordering the claim and in anticipation of the river rising.

Disaster and Retreat

But one day a heavy rain set in and by the following day had caused the river to rise and eventually cover the rock where the panned gold had been stored. The next day the river was running at eight or ten feet above even this point and still rising. At this point the party of men, including Ellacott and Hassing, withdrew to the safety of Dunstan [Clyde] but not without having to ford the swollen Clutha well upstream and risking their lives by joining hands and endeavouring to ford it "though the foaming current reached our armpits". One person had earlier attempted to jump between two rocks but almost slipped to his death and a temporary bridge of manuka and flax broke its back and fell into the fast flowing river.  

Finding in Clyde that the two washing cradles they had ordered from Dunedin had arrived these were at least able to be immediately sold off for £10 apiece - around NZD$1,086.00 each in today's values. As reports from up the river were discouraging Ellacott and Hassing then decided to leave for Wanaka never again to revisit the scene of their ill-fated gold claim, all their hard work having been washed away in the great flood.

The Clutha River meanders from Lake Wanaka in upper
centre down to Cromwell at lower right where it joins
the Kawarau River, 1888
[From my own collection]

The Clutha River Ferry and Store

Hassing confirms that earlier in 1863, in the midst of the rush of gold miners to the newly discovered workings on the Arrow River and with no means to cross the Molyneux or Clutha rivers above the Dunstan township, he foresaw the advantages of setting up a river ferry service. Establishing a "whale-boat ferry" at Albertown [Newcastle] with "hundreds of diggers, packers, and loading from Oamaru arriving daily, the venture was a most profitable one". It soon occurred to Hassing that Sandy Point some 10 miles below Albertown would be a shorter and more convenient crossing point.

The store and ferry at Sandy Point opened in March 1863 and was kept "well supplied" while also purchasing gold from the miners, I would assume the gold would mostly have been used as payment for goods purchased from the store as this was the common method of payment on the goldfields. After Hassing put up 100 posters along the route from the Dunstan near Cromwell there were 40 miners and pack-horses following him. This venture was "a most profitable one".

Hassing confirms that "In the latter part of that year [1863] my partner (Mr W. Ellacott) and I sold out to the Maori chief Patu, who, with his tribe, arrived from Maori Point, Shotover River, where they had struck it heavy and accumulated a little pile."

I am therefore assuming, and I believe correctly, that Ellacott had been his business partner right from the commencement of this ferrying and storekeeping enterprise. Hassing does refer to the fact that "[he] started the first boating and rafting, both in Lake Wanaka and the Upper Clutha [and that] my dear faithful old partner, W. Ellacott, joined me in the business."

Lake and River Rafting  

In 1865 Ellacott and Hassing took out a sub-contract to raft poles being used for telegraph and railway use by the Otago Provincial Government. With the poles being cut at the Makarora Bush at the head of Lake Wanaka these then had to be built into small rafts for floating down the Makarora River then made into larger rafts for rafting down the length of Lake Wanaka to Albert Town at the head of the Clutha River. Each pole would earn them 50 shillings, the poles then being handed over to Thomas Primate [a colourful Yorkshireman known as "Yorkey" who died in the Māori Wars in 1868] and fellow employees to then raft down the turbulent and dangerous Clutha River. While the Contractor had arranged for stores to be provided at Albertown payment was entrusted to be made upon completion.

A group of early Wanaka Pioneers including William Ellacott.
Taken outside Norman's Hotel at Albert Town, Lake Wanaka
in 1866 by Mr Rich, a travelling Photographer.
Back Row : (L to R) Henry Palmer, William Ellacott,
Joe D. Ross, Henry Norman;
Front Row : Robert H. Norman, Richard Norman,
AE Farquhar, William Waterson, James Isbell.
[Source : "The Otago Witness", 3 Oct 1906, p46]

Desperate Conditions on the Rock and Pillar Range

But when it was found in June 1865 that the contractor, one Mr Henry Hill, had drawn three quarters of the contract price and then filed for bankruptcy but could not now be found Ellacott, Hassing and Yorkey were forced, in the middle of winter, to head "post haste" over the snow covered Rock and Pillar Range for Dunedin in search of Mr Hill. The conditions over the range were so desperate that one poor waggoner stuck in the snow with a load of goods for the goldfields had committed suicide the night before by hanging himself from one of the bows on his wagon. Upon all three men reaching an accommodation house on top of the ridge it was found to be deserted but the group were able to light a fire, thaw and dry out, and boil a billy of tea.

A Loss of £400

Making it safely to the low country and arriving in Dunedin the party next day called on Mr James Prendergast, Solicitor. The latter promised to do all he could to recover what was owed, Hassing stating that he (assumedly jointly with Ellacott) was owed £400 [NZD$44,387.00 in today's values]. After extracting a retaining fee of one guinea each, nothing more was ever heard about the matter. It was later ascertained that Hill had landed safely in Peru South America and had made a fortune out of railway contracts, "a smart, but very unscrupulous man".    

Nothing Daunted

Nothing daunted, Ellacott and Hassing (who were evidently not entirely pennyless) visited the Dunedin Horse saleyards, high demand for the goldfields meaning that fresh stocks of horses were arriving weekly from Tasmania and New South Wales. The going rates were from £40 to £60 for a light hack to £90 to £120 for a light draught or pack horse. So, wishing to get a horse each to return to Wanaka, Ellacott wisely purchased  "a quiet animal" but Hassing's "had a rolling eye, and seemed rather fidgety".  Buying new saddles, bridles, and cruppers and ready to depart, Hassing was told the next day that his horse had thrown off a trooper at Tokomairiro the week before and kicked him to death. Dismissing this alledged "story" he soon found his horse to indeed have a propensity for bucking. While he succeeded in calming his bucking steed other subsequent riders did not.  

In early 1867 Hassing records that he headed off to the West Coast after gold had been discovered on the Buller River inland from Hokitika. It appears that Ellacott did not join the former on this occasion and the period through to 1874 is sketchy at best. Hassing states that he returned to Wanaka around 1869.

The 42 Ton Sailing Vessel "Eureka"

Hassing mentions in his published memoirs that when he returned from the West Coast he entered into an agreement with Mr Alfred Pinn [known as "Black Tom"] to build a sailing vessel, "The Eureka", on Pigeon Island. Pinn, "an expert ship carpenter", had already laid down the keel of the vessel on the north eastern bay of the island. As a partner in this new shipping venture, Hassing took up residence with Pinn on Pigeon Island stocking it with berry fruit bushes and 200 merino sheep. But there is no mention of our Mr Ellacott until May 1872 when "Ellacott & Hassings" 42 ton "Eureka" took part in a regatta on Lake Wanaka. "Eureka" won the "Round the Island" sailing race, came second in the one mile "Sculling Race", but last in the general "Sailing Race". "Mr Campbell's Wanaka" pulled by Messrs Russell, Ellacott, and Yeldon won the "Handicap Pulling Race". Ellacott was then 32 years of age.

Ellacott must have joined the partnership sometime after 1869, perhaps buying out Pinn's share or Hassing was just rather vague in his memoirs. Pinn is known to have moved to Perth in Western Australia but no date is given. So again, the loss of the diaries covering this period is unfortunate. In March 1873 Hassing and Ellacott were granted a license for a jetty site near Pembroke on Lake Wanaka (now known as Wanaka township) by the "Waste Lands Board". In 1874 Hassing confirms that, with Ellacott, they disposed of their Wanaka "shipping business" to Messrs Grant and Kelliher of Cromwell.

The Eternal Glorious Song of Birds

Ellacott recalled in 1907 that they had often called into Pigeon Island on Lake Wanaka, a seeming paradise of flowering shrubs and vegetation right down to the high water mark;

"...Then the eternal glorious song of birds - the tui, robin, mocking bird, kaka, and parrakeet - with the coo of the beautiful bronzewinged pigeon. I fancy now I hear the buzzing of their wings as they swooped about us heeding us destructive humans. Even the wood-hens, crows, and crested greebes helped to make it a perfect paradise. is a privilege that few have, to be able to look back upon such a time amongst such grand scenery - mountain gorges, peaks clad with eternal snow, glaciers, waterfalls, and the frequent roar of avalanches from Mount Aspiring. Nature in all its beauty and grandeur and the pleasant companionship of two old chums... 

Just think of it - how a baited hook thrown into the lake at night would for certainty have a 3lb or 4lb eel on it in the morning giving us a delicious breakfast. Well, I shall never forget my time on Lake Wanaka."

But literary pursuits in the area were evidently not neglected as a committee, including both Ellacott and Hassing, were elected in April 1871 with the very commendable aim of establishing a Public Library at Newcastle [later re-named Albertown]. Like Hassing, extant letters written by Ellacott show him to be an educated man with a good grasp of the English language and a keen sense of observation and expression.

The Queensland Goldfields

Sometime in 1874 Ellacott then headed up north before sailing to Sydney Australia along with "a mate" whom he had become acquainted with in Auckland. Despite adverse reports of fever and dysentry, both decided to try their hand at "The Palmer", a Queensland goldfield. Travelling on the "Alexandra" and "after nearly being suffocated with stinks from horses, sheep, poultry, etc., on getting into the tropics" they landed safely eight days later at Cooktown. The pair now bought horses at £30 and £40 and equipped themselves for the journey of sixty miles to a creek where there had been a report of gold being found and ready for a new adventure; "You have to travel armed to the teeth, with as much tucker as your horse can carry, utensils, and the indispensable medicine chest or bag,... salts and quinine are never absent."

"15 Miles a Day with Pack Horses is Considered Big Work"

After "losing their nags [horses]" they "did not drop across them until the fifth day". Probably lucky as the native aboriginals had speared and eaten several horses. The diggings were found to be very poor with no water as the rainy season had not yet set in. So, with nothing to be gained by staying both headed off to "The Palmer" goldfields, travelling 10 to 15 miles a day but taking a spell during the hottest time of the day; "15 miles a day with pack horses is considered big work".

Fell Away to a Mere Skeleton

When about 50 miles from town Ellacott fell ill with fever but kept up with the party of men "by dint of severe struggling" with "no shanty [hut or accommodation] in 100 miles" and "fell away to a mere skeleton". At Palmerston, a real shanty town, every fourth man was sick or had been sick and deaths occurred daily. Prospecting in an area about 50 miles past Palmerston nothing of payable value was found but Ellacott fell ill again followed by his mate. Making back for Cooktown on the coast both sold horse, saddle etc at around half what they had paid as prices had fallen. After spending two weeks in a tent while both recuperated his mate left for the south in the steamer "Leichardt" and now "disgusted with the country". As at January 1875 Ellacott was still in Cooktown but advised "no one to come here, especially from New Zealand - the change of climate being too great.". And I doubt many made their fortune!

A South Seas Adventure

Ellacott now returned to "The Old Country" [England]. But after a short time spent with his English relatives and friends "he could not rest at home" and left for a visit to the United States. After visiting the "chief cities" he reached San Francisco where he unexpectedly met up with his eldest brother John (born 1833), the Captain and owner of the 62 ton three masted schooner "Hammonia" trading among the Pacific Islands. Captain Ellacott (known as "Captain John") appears to have led an equally interesting life, being based in Bora Bora in the Society Islands and marrying, in the mid 1860's, a native "well to do princess" from the island by the name of Esther Tahapia Maria Blackett.  Not having seen each other since childhood, this happy and fortuitous family meeting led to another great adventure and colourful chapter in Ellacott's life when he agreed to sail with his brother to Tahiti.

A Propitious Marriage

Arriving at Tahiti, Ellacott decided to remain ashore to explore the island while his brother John continued his trading cruise. It was at this time that Ellacott decided to make what would turn out to be a most advantageous visit to the island of Raiatea, some 234km distant, by a native vessel. Here he met an old gentleman, also a native of Devon, who, some 30 years previous, had married the daughter of an Island Chief. This elderly gentleman had but one daughter "a pretty half-caste" and touchingly, Ellacott fell in love and married her.

It was apparently not long after Ellacott's marriage that his wife's elderly father died and left his daughter and son in law William his large cotton and coconut plantation on Raiatea. Here Ellacott lived happily and prospered in trading copra etc for the next ten years before his native wife died. During these years William is noted as being now older looking but quite slim and with a big bushy beard.

The Great Comet of 1882

In 1882, William Ellacott, the "master of a small vessel trading in the Society Islands", reported sighting a great comet that "made [a] tremendous plunge round the sun, Sept 18 [1882]" This was 'The Great Comet of 1882' [Web link Here]. This very interesting reference at least proves beyond doubt that William also sailed the islands putting his seafaring and sailing skills to use trading his copra and cotton and no doubt other goods which would prove useful and profitable to himself and other island residents.

Forced to leave the Islands

After a residence of 26 years on Raiatea Island Hassing then records that Ellacott, and much to the grief of the natives of whom "he was universally loved", became seriously ill forcing him to sell up and move to Papeete on Tahiti. It was here that the Doctors urged him to leave the island for a cooler climate. I can only imagine Ellacott had suffered a tropical illness, most likely malaria, being a frequent cause of ill health and not infrequent death to early Pacific Island Christian Missionaries.

Ellacott's Death in London

Ellacott, no doubt with a very heavy heart, returned to England about 1902 where he took up his summer residence at the family home in Exwick, North Exeter in Devon but spent the winters with his sister in London. It was in London that he died on the 24th February 1912 aged 75 years and is interred in Tooting Cemetery London along with his sister Ann. One source states that he died in Devon but I am more inclined to accept Hassing's account. The gravestone is extant and records that he was "A Trader and Planter on the island of Raiatea. Much honoured and respected by the inhabitants."

His home in Exwick, which he named "The Hermitage", had once been an old monk's priory. A relative still has the painting he made of it in 1908. The building, with it's long chimney, still survives and is now split into two smaller units. His relative wonders if William may have been inspired by the name of The Hermitage at Mount Cook.

Hassing wrote in 1923 that; "He was indeed a man of sterling quality and a true, faithful friend. We corresponded regularly from the time we parted till his death."

Of the early days Hassing also writes; "I only am left. Of the whole army of brave, hardy Wanaka pioneers of the early sixties, all but myself have now passed out. Such men are the true Empire builders. they now rest from their labours, but by their courage and exertions they have left the country better than they found it." [written around 1923]

George Hassing, a great friend and long time
correspondent of William Ellacott.
[From my own collection]

A Mysterious Disappearance

It was after his death that Hassing informs us that Ellacott's "early Wanaka diaries" were generously forwarded to him by William's younger brother Joseph Abel Ellacott of Exeter. The latter notes Hassing as "My dear old friend who was shipmate with my brother William, and afterwards for some years his partner in New Zealand", both keeping in regular contact until Hassing's death in 1928. Of the diaries. Hassing states that "these interesting reminiscent books I have deposited in the Otago Settlers' Library". And herein begins the mystery of the diaries for they have simply vanished.

The very helpful Archivist of Toitū Otago Settlers Museum in Dunedin, being the new entity now administering the archives of the afore-mentioned former institution, advised me that she had spent some considerable time searching their records for these diaries but without success. An accessions register does not appear to have been kept. The Upper Clutha Historical Records Society then advised me that they were aware of the missing diaries, having searched for them over 20 years ago. Likewise, the Hocken Library in Dunedin and the Lakes District Museum in Arrowtown have no record of them. While Hassing is quite clear in stating where he placed them this was some hundred years ago and their eventual fate appears to now be hidden in the mysteries of time. Were they simply borrowed at a later date and never returned? I have no reason to doubt Hassing's account of his placing the diaries in the former OSM Library.

Hassing, who died in December 1928, commendably did his best to ensure that this early and unique pioneering account was not lost to posterity. I believe that the diaries must be somewhere but how and why is for now unresolved. I have never had contact with any Hassing family descendants as to what records they may still hold themselves but I note a Gt Gt Grandson in Southland (unfortunately now deceased) made some genealogy inquiries in 2001. If anyone can help or can add further information about Mr Ellacott - or the diaries - I would be delighted to hear from you. I will amend this blog if (and hopefully when) any further significant information comes to hand.

Bibliography :

- "Pages From The Memory Log of G.M. Hassing", 1930 (from my own collection)
- "Papers Past" [National Library of New Zealand / Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa]
- "The Otago Witness", 6 Feb 1923
- McNab Room, Dunedin City Library
- Toitū Otago Settlers Museum Archives, Dunedin (Beth Rees)
- The Upper Clutha Historical Records Society (Mrs Margaret Thomlinson)
- "Origin of Celestial Species" by J. Norman Lockyer
- Personal family photographs (from my own collection)
- My grateful thanks to Mrs Priscilla Welch of Oregon USA (formerly of England and a descendant of William Ellacott)

Monday, 3 October 2016

Intermission 2016

Dear Readers,

As the southern hemisphere summer approaches I have taken a break from blogging. Up to this point I have in fact only been uploading blogs which I had written some time ago. I do however hope to post two or three blogs during December prior to and during the Christmas New Year season.

Blogging is very hard work and can be very time consuming, some blogs having taken a considerable amount of time to research and put together. These are often totally out of all proportion to the number of readers and the 'narrowness' of some of my subject matter probably doesn't help. My Blog series on Timekeeping in Dunedin (of which I am very proud) is a case in point but I do it because I enjoy it, even more so when no one else has comprehensively covered the subject in question. In fact you begin to live and breath the subject you're writing about and it literally begins to consume you so I do understand the passion that people feel when they write.

And I hate to make mistakes or repeat errors made by others but as an amateur blogger it is simply not possible to research every primary record and in some cases secondary records give conflicting information. It has, however, surprised me that I have stumbled across significant but obscure information, often at the very last minute (the above blog being a decided case in point), which has saved me from making embarrassing errors or perpetuating a myth. I'm not sure if that was simply luck, a guiding hand, or my perseverance in researching the subject in question. But undoubtedly inadequate research will eventually trip you up. As I write blogs rather than essays I have generally excluded the use of citations to denote the specific source of information but do note this when it is highly relevant or critical to an argument. If someone else wishes to pursue the subject it would not be hard to find the relevant information from my quoted sources or in fact from my specific quotes.

Without question, seventeen years working in a professional Archive has also greatly - and usefully - assisted my research and writing skills. I can recall a number of articles I was asked to write for publication being carefully but helpfully critiqued. It is probably not surprising that history was also my favourite and highest scoring subject at college and I thank my old history teacher, the late Ray Clarkson of James Hargest College in Invercargill (latterly of Arrowtown), for inspiring me. Ray set very high expectations in the standard of work he expected from his students and was, I recall, a very hard marker! Perhaps it's a shame I did not pursue history studies at University. 

So, for now, and when i'm not outdoors enjoying the summer weather, hosting guests, or away on holiday I will be slowly updating a couple of large family histories, genealogy being another of my passions.

I will however be happy to respond to any messages from readers. I continue to receive some very interesting inquiries, suggestions, amendments, or simply just appreciative comments when I have touched on a subject of mutual interest. I have, through my blogs, come into contact with a fascinatingly diverse group of people from around the world. Two readers have in fact used aspects of my blogs as inspiration for specific chapters of historical novels they were writing. I'm hoping to be invited to at least one book launch!

And it gives me such a buzz when readers get excited about discovering information they did not previously know of and which is of personal relevance to them. In fact I get quite wrapped up in the passion they themselves feel, especially when it relates to their forebears. Only last week I was inspired, through contact with a family member who had messaged me, to offer to transcribe historical diaries relating to an early but now almost forgotten early Otago pioneer, having noted these in one of my blogs. These had been specifically placed in a local historical institution after his death, the family subsequently having no knowledge of their existence. As an early Otago gold miner, river rafter, storekeeper, river ferryman, lake shipper, and latterly a South Pacific Island cotton and coconut plantation owner before finally returning home to England, he sounded extraordinarily fascinating.

But most unfortunately, in the space of the last 100 odd years and after an exhaustive search, the said diaries have apparently vanished. I would stress, however, that I am not casting dispersions on the professionalism of the current entity now running the said institution. I will, however, perhaps try, from other sources, to relate something of this gentleman's varied life in a future blog. But first I must finish the revision of my family histories....   

Meanwhile, I will continue to read daily those updated blogs on "My Blog Roll". The most recently updated blogs are always at the top of the list. These blogs also very much reflect my own diverse interests and I thank those bloggers for their own very hard work.

Again, thank you for your interest and support thus far, it has been appreciated.

Until December,


Monday, 26 September 2016

The New Zealand and South Seas Exhibition, Dunedin, 1889-1890 (Part Eight - The Closure of the Exhibition & Sale of the Buildings)

An award certificate from the New Zealand
and South Seas Exhibition, Dunedin 1889-90
[Source : Toitū Otago Settlers Museum]

This continues my Blog series looking at the "New Zealand and South Seas Exhibition" held in Dunedin between 1889 and 1890. To read all parts of this blog series please click on "New Zealand and South Seas Exhibition 1889-1890" in the left-hand "Labels" menu.

The Closing of the Exhibition

By the time the New Zealand and South Seas Exhibition closed on the 19th April 1890 it had attracted 625,248 visitors over 125 days with 399,573 paid admissions (the rest being season ticket holders, volunteers and those holding free passes); and on closing day, which broke the attendance record, 18,434 admissions (which included 13,683 paid and 3,749 season ticket holders).

When planning the Exhibition it had been assumed there would be 240,000 paid admissions and 1,000 season tickets sold. The latter figure alone ended up being around four times the estimate.

The Exhibition Closing Ceremony, 19 April 1890

The "season of the exhibition" occasioned not just a visit from His Excellency the Governor, but also the Admiral of the Australian fleet, the Governors of New South Wales and South Australia, leading public figures from New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia, and the officers of three "ships of war".

It was with regret and a feeling of melancholy on the part of the majority that the Exhibition was brought to a close and it was not expected that any enthusiasm would be evinced at the closing scenes of what would mark the end of an era in the history of the colony.

The "Volunteers", numbering some 400 men comprising of the ordnance battalion, the rifles and the cavalry who were mustered at the Garrison Hall just before 7 pm in the evening, being watched by a considerable crowd. At 7.30 pm the men marched by way of Princes street to the Exhibition, being led by a contingent of Hussars then the Ordnance Band preceding the Ordnance battalion, followed by the several rifle corps and the large crowd which had gathered. Due to the great crush of people it was found necessary to admit the Volunteers to the Exhibition grounds via the exhibitors' entrance in Crawford street where they afterwards mingled with the crowd.

The ceremony of declaring the Exhibition closed took place in the Concert Hall at 8pm, being represented on the dais by the President, members of the Executive committee, the Hon. Minister for Education, the Commissioners for the Australian courts, and a number of other invited guests including "several ladies", both on the dais and in the body of the hall.

The proceedings were opened by the Dunedin Garrison Band who were seated on the stage which preceeded the official speeches which included the reading of a full resumé of the Exhibition history and arrangements. A resumé of the awards given out to exhibitors were then read out with the classes (ie, first, second third, special etc) and to which countries they belonged.

The Exhibition Awards by Country and Class
[Source : "The Otago Daily Times"]

This part of the proceedings were accompanied by musical honours contributed by the Garrison Band, the awards to Great Britain being followed by "Rule, Britannia", France by "La Marseillaise", Germany by "Die Wacht am Rhein", the other participating colonies with appropriate pieces, and New Zealand with the version of "Hail! Zealandia" composed by Mr F. Leech of Dunedin.

The President with "somewhat mixed feelings of pride, gratitude, and regret" then rose to announce, in a lengthy speech which expressed thanks to many individuals [of which I have only included small excerpts], that the Exhibition is closed.

"I am sure to all residents in Dunedin - a matter of gratefulness and gratitude that the exhibition has been the means of drawing to our doors friends from all parts - friends even from across the sea from the distant Home country, friends from the neighbouring colonies and from the adjoining provinces of this colony. We have had during the last four months an opportunity of interchangeing ideas and of having a social community with our friends which we have never before, so far as I know, enjoyed in this colony."

Speaking on behalf of the committee, he hoped that when the Exhibition buildings were sold that the four Octagons could be saved and "provided the circumstances of the case warrant it", he would be prepared to ask the shareholders if these could be given "to the museum, university, or some other public institution". He would also ask the shareholders "to make the most reasonable terms for the main building, or else bestow it as a gift for a workmen's college", being followed by applause. [As we shall read, his intentions proved not to come to fruition]

"As it was becoming on such an occasion the opening of the exhibition was accompanied by a prayer, asking the blessing of Almighty God on the undertaking, and it is now alike our duty to and privilege humbly to acknowledge that the prayer then made has been amply answered, and that the Maker and Giver of all things has granted His protection and guidance. I now declare the New Zealand and South Seas Exhibition closed."

Thereupon the band played the National Anthem, and after cheers for the Queen and the Exhibition President, the proceedings terminated, having taken less than an hour and a quarter.

The Grand Finale - The Pyrotechnical Display

All through the final day there was a constant stream of visitors  into the Exhibition "but after 6 o'clock it seemed as if the whole of Dunedin had turned out". It was not until nearly 8.30 pm that the crowd showed any signs of slackening. In the building "locomotion was almost impossible, and people had simply to allow themselves to be carried by the crowd hither and thither."  

In anticipation of the grand pyrotechnical display a large crowd had gathered in the gardens long before the commencement time. At precisely 9.30 pm the electric light was extinguished with rockets being fired first from the south western angle of the grounds then the south eastern angle. Various portions of the grounds were illuminated by colours but the crush of people was such that this could not be seen to advantage from any standpoint. 

"The effect of the girandole wheels, supported by discharging rockets, was very pretty, as also was the striking effect of the batteries of Roman candles. The display lasted for fully three quarters of an hour, finishing off with a beautiful pyrotechnic device, which gradually resolved itself into the motto, "God save the Queen"." 

Upon the electric light again lighting up the gardens it was observed that the flower beds in the central portions had been "trampled out of recognition".

The process of emptying the Exhibition buildings and grounds of some 18,000 people took some time with "many of them casting longing, lingering looks behind" as they left. This continued until as late as 20 past 11 with "only a few loiterers remaining" who then quickly left after the main lights were extinguished. It is reported that one of the last things heard in the building was the playing of a verse of "God save the Queen" as a solo on a cornet. At half past 11 the doors to the exhibition were locked. Sadly, it was now all over. 

An Analysis of the Exhibition     

Despite the openly expressed fears of many that the Exhibition would be a failure [the Wellington Exhibition of 1885 made a large financial loss], success crowned the efforts of those, who with commendable enterprise, took the initiative in executing their plan and faithfully worked hard over many months to make the Exhibition worthy of the colony. While there had been three previous industrial exhibitions in the colony "on a large scale"; this one had been on a far more extensive scale that any of the others. While visitors from other lands expressed surprise at the great display they witnessed at the Exhibition, astonishment was given by the oldest colonists on seeing the evidence of the progress we had made in so short a time.

In a report made to Napoleon of the results of the Exhibition in the Grand Court of the Louvre in Paris in 1801, it was declared that; "there was not an artist or inventor who obtained a public recognition of his ability but has found his reputation and his business largely increased".

Although the Dunedin Exhibition was not expected to show any immediately beneficial results it was noted that "thousands have already derived technical education from it, tens of thousands have been generally educated by it, and every one who has passed inside its turnstiles has found in it a great source of pleasure".

As one of the pioneers of the Otago settlement was heard to remark, "Who would have thought, 40 years ago, that we would have ever seen the like of this!".

The history of Dunedin may thus be summed up; "Yesterday dense forest, with a little clearing along the shore and a few huts; today a populous and prosperous town, reflecting the general prosperity of the country of which it is the commercial centreThe display of our products in the [Exhibition] not only brings into focus... the tangible proofs of the resources of our more immediate surroundings, but amply demonstrates at the same time, the unchallengeable resources of the whole colony."

The Sale of the Exhibition Buildings

A large auction took place of the Exhibition buildings on the 14th and 15th May 1890, being broken up into 48 lots including the main buildings, concert hall, art gallery, and the four octagons, being referred to as the Victorian, Mineral, Woolen, and Public Works Octagons on account of who had occupied them. It appears that the main entrance, art gallery, and concert hall did not sell and were offered for rent or removal by auction on the 7th June for removal or for rent or they would be demolished. The "Celebrated Eiffel Tower" was auctioned off on behalf of the Otis Elevator Company agents on the 31st May 1890.

It is known that a portion of the Exhibition buildings were taken down and re-erected at Burnside for the Kempthorne Prosser & Co, drug company as tenders were called. What this specifically comprised of is unknown and may not have been rebuilt in the same form. All their buildings at Burnside were demolished many years ago. It would appear that a great quantity of deconstructed material was also simply sold off on site by the auctioneers. 

I have since discovered (2022) an intriguing reference to the fate of the Art Gallery buildings. When the history of the 1925-26 New Zealand and South Seas Exhibition (held in Dunedin) was written, part of the Art Gallery buildings were being used as a seed store. While old brick buildings survive in the area no one has subsequently linked these to the 1889-90 Exhibition buildings. My thanks to JDP Econ Publications for uncovering this very interesting reference. 

The Exhibition "Octagon" as viewed in 2007
[From my own collection]

The last known remaining - and confirmed - part of the Exhibition buildings was one of the Octagons which was dismantled then hauled to Kuri Bush just north of Taieri Mouth by John Keast using a team of six horses pulling a wagon where it was re-erected on the Dickson farm, the family having settled here in 1848.

A neighbouring landowner, Russell Geeves, stated in 2001 that "The dome included four nine inch by nine inch rimu beams which were 48 feet tall, now you wouldn't get timber like that these days."

Mr Dickson used the building for horse stables, a cow byre, an implement shed, and as a threshing floor for oats and wheat. But "the ventilation was poor and the workers refused to thresh in it because there was so much dust it was suffocating". At one later point it was simply used to store hay.

The last repairs were about 1976 when Mr Geeves, the then owner, patched the iron roof and replaced the wooden foundations with concrete.

Over the years, and "being absolutely riddled with borer", it became unsafe and blew down in high winds in November 2015. I took the above photograph while cycling down to Taieri Mouth back in 2007. Over the following years the roof and wall facing the road steadily fell apart and that whole side of the building ended up completely open to the elements. With untreated wood and full of borer, little could have been done to save it.       

But what, can anyone tell me, became of the foundation stone which had been laid with such honour in March 1889? There is no record of the stone itself carrying an inscription but I would be very surprised if it had not. I know that the Christchurch Exhibition of 1906-07 had a fully inscribed stone.

Sources :

- Papers Past [National Library of New Zealand / Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa]
- NZ History Net / Nga Korero a ipurango o Aotearoa
- Hocken Collections, Dunedin / Uare Taoka o Hākena
- "The Star" newspaper, Dunedin
- Toitū Otago Settlers Museum, Dunedin

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